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Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can be used as a messengers in normal cell functions. However, at oxidative stress levels they can disrupt normal physiological pathways and cause cell death. Such a switch is largely mediated through Ca(2+) signaling. Oxidative stress causes Ca(2+) influx into the cytoplasm from the extracellular environment and from(More)
Huntington's disease (HD), a genetic neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin (Htt) protein, is accompanied by multiple mitochondrial alterations. Here, we show that mitochondrial fragmentation and cristae alterations characterize cellular models of HD and participate in their increased susceptibility to apoptosis. In(More)
We report an entirely new role for the HSP70 chaperone in dissociating 26S proteasome complexes (into free 20S proteasomes and bound 19S regulators), preserving 19S regulators, and reconstituting 26S proteasomes in the first 1-3h after mild oxidative stress. These responses, coupled with direct 20S proteasome activation by poly(ADP ribose) polymerase in the(More)
The DSCR1 (Adapt78) gene was independently discovered as a resident of the "Down syndrome candidate region"and as an "adaptive response"shock or stress gene that is transiently induced during oxidative stress. Recently the DSCR1 (Adapt78) gene product was discovered to be an inhibitor of the serine/threonine phosphatase, calcineurin, and its signaling(More)
The RCAN1 protein (previously called calcipressin 1 or MCIP1) binds to calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase (PP2B), and inhibits its activity. Here we demonstrate that regulated overexpression of an RCAN1 transgene (this gene was previously called DSCR1 or Adapt78) also stimulates expression of the GSK-3beta kinase, which can antagonize the action of(More)
Expression of the RCAN1 gene can be induced by multiple stresses. RCAN1 proteins (RCAN1s) have both protective and harmful effects and are implicated in common human pathologies. The mechanisms by which RCAN1s function, however, remain poorly understood. We identify RCAN1s as regulators of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and demonstrate that induction(More)
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) toxicity and tau hyperphosphorylation are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). How their molecular relationships may affect the etiology, progression, and severity of the disease, however, has not been elucidated. We now report that incubation of fetal rat cortical neurons with Aβ upregulates expression of the Regulator of(More)
Although DSCR1 (Adapt78) has been associated with successful adaptation to oxidative stress and calcium stress and with devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Down syndrome, no rationale for these apparently contradictory findings has been tested. In fact, DSCR1 (Adapt78) has not yet been proved to provide protection against acute oxidative stress or(More)
DSCR1(Adapt78) is a stress responsive gene that can be induced by multiple stresses. We have previously demonstrated that acute DSCR1(Adapt78) overexpression can transiently protect cells against oxidative stress and calcium-mediated stresses, while its chronic overexpression is associated with neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer disease, and Down's(More)
Oxidized cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins are normally degraded by the proteasome, but accumulate with age and disease. We demonstrate the importance of various forms of the proteasome during transient (reversible) adaptation (hormesis), to oxidative stress in murine embryonic fibroblasts. Adaptation was achieved by 'pre-treatment' with very low(More)