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Embryos and larvae of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), and starfish (Pisaster ochraceus) were investigated for the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system. Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA), was measured in early L. variegatus embryos by liquid(More)
Chlorpyrifos targets mammalian brain development through a combination of effects directed at cholinergic receptors and intracellular signaling cascades that are involved in cell differentiation. We used sea urchin embryos as an invertebrate model system to explore the cellular mechanisms underlying the actions of chlorpyrifos and to delineate the critical(More)
Serotonin acts as antagonist of progesterone on amphibian oocytes. Serotonin antagonists inhibit maturation of starfish oocytes and stimulate or trigger maturation in amphibians. We propose that endogenous serotonin participates in the control of oocyte maturation.
A classical neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) was detected immunochemically using laser scanning microscopy at the early stages of Tritonia diomedea development. At the one- to eight-cell stages, immunolabeling suggested the presence of 5-HT in the cytoplasm close to the animal pole. At the morula and blastula stages, a group of micromeres at the animal(More)
1. Some nicotinic antagonists (piperidine and quinuclidine derivatives and bis-quaternary compounds) protect early embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus against a calcium shock evoked by ionomycin or a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and nicotine. 2. Maximal protective potency was found for drugs that did not penetrate the plasma membrane. 3.(More)
Choline esters of polyenoic fatty acids block cleavage divisions of sea urchins and evoke the formation of one-cell multinuclear embryos. If the fatty acids AA-Ch or DHA-Ch are added at the mid or late blastula stage, many cells are extruded, forming extra-embryonic cell clusters near the animal pole of embryos or larvae. Both effects are prevented by(More)
The problem of pre-nervous neurotransmitter systems arose from studies carried out on different groups of invertebrates and vertebrates in the late 1950s to early 1960s. These investigations were motivated by an hypothesis formulated by K. S. Koshtoyants concerning the similarity between pre-nervous control processes and neuronal functions. Here, we review(More)
Serotonin is a clinically important neurotransmitter regulating diverse aspects of cognitive function, sleep, mood, and appetite. Increasingly, it is becoming appreciated that serotonin signaling among non-neuronal cells is a novel patterning mechanism existing throughout diverse phyla. Here, we review the evidence implicating serotonergic signaling in(More)
1. Classical neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine, biogenic amines, and GABA) are functionally active throughout ontogenesis. 2. Based on accumulated evidence, reviewed herein, we present an hypothetical scheme describing developmental changes in this functional activity, from the stage of maturing oocytes through neuronal differentiation. This scheme(More)