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Embryos and larvae of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Dendraster excentricus), and starfish (Pisaster ochraceus) were investigated for the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system. Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide, AEA), was measured in early L. variegatus embryos by liquid(More)
Chlorpyrifos targets mammalian brain development through a combination of effects directed at cholinergic receptors and intracellular signaling cascades that are involved in cell differentiation. We used sea urchin embryos as an invertebrate model system to explore the cellular mechanisms underlying the actions of chlorpyrifos and to delineate the critical(More)
A classical neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) was detected immunochemically using laser scanning microscopy at the early stages of Tritonia diomedea development. At the one- to eight-cell stages, immunolabeling suggested the presence of 5-HT in the cytoplasm close to the animal pole. At the morula and blastula stages, a group of micromeres at the animal(More)
Serotonin acts as antagonist of progesterone on amphibian oocytes. Serotonin antagonists inhibit maturation of starfish oocytes and stimulate or trigger maturation in amphibians. We propose that endogenous serotonin participates in the control of oocyte maturation.
1. Classical neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine, biogenic amines, and GABA) are functionally active throughout ontogenesis. 2. Based on accumulated evidence, reviewed herein, we present an hypothetical scheme describing developmental changes in this functional activity, from the stage of maturing oocytes through neuronal differentiation. This scheme(More)
Serotonin is a clinically important neurotransmitter regulating diverse aspects of cognitive function, sleep, mood, and appetite. Increasingly, it is becoming appreciated that serotonin signaling among non-neuronal cells is a novel patterning mechanism existing throughout diverse phyla. Here, we review the evidence implicating serotonergic signaling in(More)
The problem of pre-nervous neurotransmitter systems arose from studies carried out on different groups of invertebrates and vertebrates in the late 1950s to early 1960s. These investigations were motivated by an hypothesis formulated by K. S. Koshtoyants concerning the similarity between pre-nervous control processes and neuronal functions. Here, we review(More)
Evidence is presented in support of the working hypothesis that "prenervous" neurotransmitters directly participate in cell-cell interactions occurring during the first several cleavage divisions of sea urchin embryos, a function which may occur during the early development of higher animals as well. This intercellular signaling could be a link in the(More)
Forty serotonin-related neurochemicals were tested on embryos and larvae of Lytechinus variegatus and other sea urchin species. Some of these substances (agonists of 5-HT1 receptors, antagonists of 5-HT2, 5-HT3 or 5-HT4 receptors, and inhibitors of the serotonin transporter, SERT) perturbed post-blastulation development, eliciting changes in(More)
Treatment of the embryos of sea urchins with glyoxylic acid results in the appearance of luminescence which is indicative of the presence of biogenic monoamines. At the early stages of development (cleavage divisions, blastula, gastrula) the histochemical method reveals a tryptamine-like substance which is first found in all embryonic cells and later is(More)