Gennadiy Novitskiy

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The human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP-1) is known to block the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the mechanism of inhibition is poorly understood. We examined the effect of HNP-1 on HIV-1 entry and fusion and found that, surprisingly, this α-defensin inhibited multiple steps of virus entry, including: (i) Env binding to CD4 and(More)
Hepatic fibrosis is due to the increased synthesis and deposition of type I collagen. Acetaldehyde activates type I collagen promoters. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) was previously shown to inhibit expression of murine alpha(1)(I) and human alpha(2)(I) collagen promoters. The present study identifies binding of NF-kappaB, present in nuclear extracts of(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism is a common cause of cirrhosis. Hepatic stellate cells are the main source of collagen that ultimately leads to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) enhance stellate cell activation and stimulate fibrogenesis. In this study, the acute effects of ethanol (ET) and acetaldehyde (AC) were determined on the(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal allograft rejection resembles Crohn's disease clinically and pathologically. An understanding of its mechanism could impact this life-saving procedure, as well as provide insight into the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. The NOD2 protein has been implicated as a key player in intestinal immune health, as a consequence of(More)
A large group of viruses rely on low pH to activate their fusion proteins that merge the viral envelope with an endosomal membrane, releasing the viral nucleocapsid. A critical barrier to understanding these events has been the lack of approaches to study virus-cell membrane fusion within acidic endosomes, the natural sites of virus nucleocapsid capsid(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS This study determined the roles of NAD(P)H oxidase, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), and of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which generates nitric oxide (NO) on the development of hepatic fibrosis in mice. METHODS Hepatic fibrosis was produced by carbon tetrachloride administered for 12 weeks in wild-type (WT) mice(More)
AIMS Increased plasma tumour necrosis alpha (TNFalpha) and elevated monocyte nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) are associated with liver injury and inflammation in models of alcoholic liver disease and are found to be elevated in monocytes of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Acetaldehyde enhances, whereas TNFalpha inhibits, transcription of the type I(More)
The role of retinoic acid (RA) in liver fibrogenesis was previously studied in cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). RA suppresses the expression of alpha2(I) collagen by means of the activities of specific nuclear receptors RARalpha, RXRbeta and their coregulators. In this study, the effects of RA in fibrogenesis were examined in carbon tetrachloride(More)
Acute small intestinal allograft rejection presents clinically as an abrupt increase in ileal fluid output in the absence of extensive inflammation. We questioned whether acute intestinal rejection might be accompanied by a disturbance of normal intestinal stem cell differentiation. We examined the intestinal epithelial secretory cell lineage among patients(More)
Aims: Increased plasma tumour necrosis α (TNFα) and elevated monocyte nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) are associated with liver injury and inflammation in models of alcoholic liver disease and are found to be elevated in monocytes of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Acetaldehyde enhances, whereas TNFα inhibits, transcription of the type I collagen(More)
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