Gennadij Raivich

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The radical response of peripheral nerves to injury (Wallerian degeneration) is the cornerstone of nerve repair. We show that activation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells is a global regulator of Wallerian degeneration. c-Jun governs major aspects of the injury response, determines the expression of trophic factors, adhesion molecules, the(More)
Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leads to cellular changes not only in the affected neurons but also in adjacent glial cells and endothelia, and frequently, to a recruitment of cells of the immune system. These cellular changes form a graded response which is a consistent feature in almost all forms of brain pathology. It appears to reflect an(More)
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding nonneuronal cells that ultimately result in successful target reinnervation or cell death. c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to neuronal trauma. Here we have investigated the role of c-jun during axonal(More)
Although microglial activation occurs in inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, its role in pathogenesis is unclear. We studied this question by generating CD11b-HSVTK transgenic mice, which express herpes simplex thymidine kinase in macrophages and microglia. Ganciclovir treatment of organotypic brain slice(More)
The interplay between growing axons and the extracellular substrate is pivotal for directing axonal outgrowth during development and regeneration. Here we show an important role for the neuronal cell adhesion molecule alpha7beta1 integrin during peripheral nerve regeneration. Axotomy led to a strong increase of this integrin on regenerating motor and(More)
Astrocyte activation is a ubiquitous hallmark of the damaged brain and has been suggested to play an important regulatory role in the activation, survival, and regeneration of adjacent neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Little is known, however, about the endogenous signals that lead to this activation of astrocytes. Here we examined the regulation(More)
Although the CNS is an established immune-privileged site, it is under surveillance by the immune system, particularly under pathological conditions. In the current study we examined the lymphocyte infiltration, a key component of this neuroimmune surveillance, into the axotomized facial motor nucleus and analyzed the changes in proinflammatory cytokines(More)
Peripheral nerve injury is normally followed by a robust regenerative response. Here we describe the early changes associated with injury from the initial rise in intracellular calcium and the subsequent activation of transcription factors and cytokines leading to an inflammatory reaction, and the expression of growth factors, cytokines, neuropeptides, and(More)
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding non-neuronal cells. Of particular interest are molecular signals that play a role in the overall orchestration of this multifaceted cellular response. Here we investigated the function of interleukin-6 (IL6), a multifunctional neurotrophin and cytokine rapidly expressed in the(More)
The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is a master regulator of the axonal response in neurons. c-Jun also functions as a negative regulator of myelination in Schwann cells (SCs) and is strongly reactivated in SCs upon axonal injury. We demonstrate here that, after injury, the absence of c-Jun specifically in SCs caused impaired axonal regeneration and(More)