Gengo Kashiwazaki

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Ten eleven translocation (Tet) enzymes oxidize the epigenetically important DNA base 5-methylcytosine (mC) stepwise to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine. It is currently unknown whether Tet-induced oxidation is limited to cytosine-derived nucleobases or whether other nucleobases are oxidized as well. We synthesized(More)
Direct repair of UV-induced DNA lesions represents an elegant method for many organisms to deal with these highly mutagenic and cytotoxic compounds. Although the participating proteins are structurally well investigated, the exact repair mechanism of the photolyase enzymes remains a vivid subject of current research. In this review, we summarize and(More)
Four new alkylating N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (PI) polyamide conjugates (1-4) with seven-base-pair (bp) recognition ability were synthesized. Evaluation of their DNA-alkylating activity clearly showed accurate alkylation at match site(s). The cytotoxicities of conjugates 1-4 were determined against six human cancer cell lines, and the effect of(More)
Three new cytosine derived DNA modifications, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (fdC) and 5-carboxy-2'-deoxycytidine (cadC) were recently discovered in mammalian DNA, particularly in stem cell DNA. Their function is currently not clear, but it is assumed that in stem cells they might be intermediates of an active(More)
We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI)(More)
In order to investigate the influence of molecular size and pyrrole (Py)/imidazole (Im) content on the cell permeability of Py-Im-polyamide-fluorescein conjugates we systematically designed the Py-polyamides and Im-polyamides. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Py-polyamides, even those with large molecular size, P-15 and P-18, showed good cellular(More)
Perylene-conjugated pyrrole (Py)-polyamide 2 was designed and synthesized using the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and a subsequent Sonogashira coupling reaction with 3-bromoperylene. Interestingly, conjugate 2 did not luminesce in water at 313 nm irradiation but was turned on in the presence of target double-stranded (ds) DNA, and showed strong emission with(More)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transforms human B lymphocytes into immortalized cells in vitro and is associated with various malignancies in vivo. EBNA1, which is expressed in the majority of EBV-infected cells, recognizes specific DNA sequences at the cis-acting latent origin of plasmid replication (oriP) element of the EBV genome. EBNA1 plays a critical role(More)
Mutation of KRAS is a key step in many cancers. Mutations occur most frequently at codon 12, but the targeting of KRAS is notoriously difficult. We recently demonstrated selective reduction in the volume of tumors harboring the KRAS codon 12 mutation in a mouse model by using an alkylating hairpin N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole polyamide(More)
Five N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (Py-Im) polyamides possessing a fluorescent pyrene were synthesized by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis using Py/Im monomers and pyrenylbutyl-pyrrole monomer compound 9. The steady state fluorescence of conjugates 1-5 was examined in the presence and absence of (CAG)(12)-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 and 2. Of(More)