Gengo Kashiwazaki

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Ten eleven translocation (Tet) enzymes oxidize the epigenetically important DNA base 5-methylcytosine (mC) stepwise to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxycytosine. It is currently unknown whether Tet-induced oxidation is limited to cytosine-derived nucleobases or whether other nucleobases are oxidized as well. We synthesized(More)
Four new alkylating N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (PI) polyamide conjugates (1-4) with seven-base-pair (bp) recognition ability were synthesized. Evaluation of their DNA-alkylating activity clearly showed accurate alkylation at match site(s). The cytotoxicities of conjugates 1-4 were determined against six human cancer cell lines, and the effect of(More)
Direct repair of UV-induced DNA lesions represents an elegant method for many organisms to deal with these highly mutagenic and cytotoxic compounds. Although the participating proteins are structurally well investigated, the exact repair mechanism of the photolyase enzymes remains a vivid subject of current research. In this review, we summarize and(More)
Five N-methylpyrrole-N-methylimidazole (Py-Im) polyamides possessing a fluorescent pyrene were synthesized by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis using Py/Im monomers and pyrenylbutyl-pyrrole monomer compound 9. The steady state fluorescence of conjugates 1-5 was examined in the presence and absence of (CAG)(12)-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) 1 and 2. Of(More)
Three new cytosine derived DNA modifications, 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (hmdC), 5-formyl-2'-deoxycytidine (fdC) and 5-carboxy-2'-deoxycytidine (cadC) were recently discovered in mammalian DNA, particularly in stem cell DNA. Their function is currently not clear, but it is assumed that in stem cells they might be intermediates of an active(More)
In order to investigate the influence of molecular size and pyrrole (Py)/imidazole (Im) content on the cell permeability of Py-Im-polyamide-fluorescein conjugates we systematically designed the Py-polyamides and Im-polyamides. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Py-polyamides, even those with large molecular size, P-15 and P-18, showed good cellular(More)
Although DNA interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents are widely used as antitumor drugs, DNA sequence-specific ICL agents are quite rare. In this study, H-pin imidazole-pyrrole polyamide 1-(chloromethyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[e]indol-5-ol (seco-CBI) conjugates that produce sequence-specific DNA ICLs were designed and synthesized. Conjugates with H-pin(More)
Small molecules capable of modulating epigenetic signatures can activate the transcription of tissue-restricted genes in a totally unrelated cell type and have potential use in epigenetic therapy. To provide an example for an initial approach, we report here on one synthetic small-molecule compound-termed "SAHA-PIP X"-from our library of conjugates. This(More)
We demonstrate a novel strategy for visualizing sequence-selective alkylation of target double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a synthetic pyrrole-imidazole (PI) polyamide in a designed DNA origami scaffold. Doubly functionalized PI polyamide was designed by introduction of an alkylating agent 1-(chloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-benz[e]indole (seco-CBI)(More)
Perylene-conjugated pyrrole (Py)-polyamide 2 was designed and synthesized using the Fmoc solid-phase synthesis and a subsequent Sonogashira coupling reaction with 3-bromoperylene. Interestingly, conjugate 2 did not luminesce in water at 313 nm irradiation but was turned on in the presence of target double-stranded (ds) DNA, and showed strong emission with(More)