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The aim of this study was to determine the minimum daily period of exposure to normal visual stimulation required to prevent occlusion induced myopia in chicks. Chicks were treated with monocular translucent occlusion in a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle. Occluders were removed for 0 (constant occlusion), 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 240 or 720 (no(More)
The aim of this study was to determine whether an integrator of neural activity influences the amount of myopia and axial elongation resulting from deprivation of form vision. The effects on ocular parameters of a continuous period of 30 min per day of normal vision was compared to two exposures of 15 min duration each, or three exposures of 10 min each.(More)
The high-affinity uptake of glutamate by glial cells and neurons of the central nervous system, including the retina, serves to inactivate synaptically released glutamate and maintains glutamate at low concentrations in the extracellular space. This uptake prevents accumulation of glutamate extracellularly and thus minimizes the possibility of glutamate(More)
Glutamate (E) is the putative amino acid neurotransmitter used by ganglion cells, photoreceptors, and bipolar cells. Aspartate (D) and glutamine (Q) are potential precursors of glutamate, and glutamate-utilizing neurons may use one or more of these amino acids to sustain production of glutamate. We used post-embedding immunocytochemistry for several amino(More)
Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two of the dominant neurotransmitters in the retina and brain. The production/degradation of glutamate and GABA involves an intricate interrelationship between neurons and glia, as well as aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The aim of this work was to develop an in vitro model of retinal(More)
Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the dominant amino acids in the retina and brain. The manufacturing and degradation pathways of both of these amino acids are intricately linked with the tricarboxylic acid cycle leading to rapid redistribution of these amino acids after metabolic insult. Postmortem ischemia in mammalian retina predominantly(More)
BACKGROUND Retinal neural and glial cells share an intricate relationship that includes uptake and recycling of the amino acid neurotransmitters, glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), as well as metabolic links. The aim of this work was to determine the neurochemical and morphological changes induced by the removal of glucose but with the provision(More)
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