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Bipolar cells are not only important for visual processing but input from these cells may underlie the reorganization of ganglion cell dendrites in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) during development. Because little is known about the development of bipolar cells, here we have used immunocytochemical markers and dye labeling to identify and follow their(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a lipid transporting protein, has been postulated to participate in nerve regeneration. To better clarify apoE function in the olfactory system, we evaluated the amount and distribution of apoE in the olfactory bulb following olfactory nerve lesion in mice. Olfactory nerve was lesioned in 2- to 4-month-old mice by intranasal(More)
The apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) genotype is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the mechanism is unknown. We previously demonstrated that apoE isoforms differentially modulated neurite outgrowth in embryonic neurons and in neuronal cell lines. ApoE3 increased neurite outgrowth whereas apoE4 decreased outgrowth, suggesting that apoE4 may(More)
We have used confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with BODIPY-phallacidin staining of filamentous actin to investigate changes in the quantity and organization of cortical actin during the first two cell cycles following fertilization in eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Quantification of fluorescent phallacidin staining(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulates the pattern of correlated spontaneous bursting activity between amacrine cells and ganglion cells of the ferret retina during the first postnatal month. Here, we demonstrate the presence of an anatomical network which may underlie these interactions throughout the period when correlated bursting activity is observed,(More)
We demonstrate highly broad-band frequency conversion via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. Through appropriate engineering of the waveguide dimensions, conversion bandwidths greater than 150 nm are achieved and peak conversion efficiencies of-9.6 dB are demonstrated. Furthermore, utilizing fourth-order dispersion, wavelength conversion across(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) was imaged in vivo in a rodent model with optical intrinsic signals (OIS). This is the first study to identify a triphasic OIS response and to characterize the rate and timing of the response. The initial OIS phase had a highly uniform wavefront, which spread at a rate characteristic of CSD, 3.5 mm/min. Later phases were(More)
a continuous wave (cw) He±Cd laser (325 nm) with an output power of 20 mW was used as the excitation source. The PL was dispersed through a SPEX Triax 500 spectrometer with a 600 lines/mm grating and was detected by a nitrogen-cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The development of surfaces that have switchable properties offers a new dimension in the(More)
the PCB from 90 to 110 mm, the bandwidth is increased a ratio of 1.6. However, this value is 1.5 at high band. The presented technique is very useful to satisfy the systems of GSM850/ GSM900, DCS, PCS, and UMTS. Finally, various prototypes have been implemented. These prototypes have corroborated the trends of the simulations. The SAR study is underway and(More)
Ultrafast lasers with high repetition rates are of considerable interest in applications such as optical fiber telecommunications , frequency metrology, high-speed optical sampling, and arbitrary waveform generation. For fiber lasers mode-locked at the cavity round-trip frequency, the pulse repetition rate is limited to tens or hundreds of megahertz by the(More)