Gene E. Likens
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Nitrogen is a key element controlling the species composition, diversity, dynamics, and functioning of many terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Many of the original plant species living… Continue Reading
Improvements in the water quality of many freshwater and most coastal marine ecosystems requires reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus inputs.
Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh… Continue Reading
1 Ecosystem Analysis Small Watershed Approach The Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Location Climate Area, Topography, and Aspect Geology Soils Vegetation and Fauna Drainage Streams Concluding Thoughts 2… Continue Reading
Long-term data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, suggest that although changes in stream pH have been relatively small, large quantities of calcium and magnesium have been… Continue Reading
Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year… Continue Reading
An annual energy budget is presented for Bear Brook, a small undisturbed second-order stream in northeastern United States. The ecosystem approach, in which all input and output fluxes of potential… Continue Reading
Abstract We provide a broad overview of the underlying philosophy of ecological monitoring. We argue that the major characteristics of effective monitoring programs typically include: (1) Good… Continue Reading