Learn More
Psychometric properties of the Sensation and Distress of Pain Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) are compared to dual numerical rating scales (NRS) with data from a randomized controlled trial of postoperative patients. On postoperative days 1 and 2, 15-minute test-retest reliability was .73 to .82 for the VAS and slightly lower for the NRS, r = .72 to .78, while(More)
OBJECTIVE Although many people are exposed to trauma, only some individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder; most do not. It is possible that humans differ in the degree to which stress induces neurobiological perturbations of their threat response systems, which may result in a differential capacity to cope with aversive experiences. This study(More)
To describe the effect of nonnutritive sucking (NNS) on behavioral state (BSt) in preterm infants before feedings 24 preterm infants were randomly assigned and studied before each of their first 16 bottle feedings. Twelve received NNS by pacifier for 5 minutes; 12 did not receive a pacifier. BSt was measured with a 12-category scale for 30 seconds before(More)
Forty-two pre-term infants were studied to determine the effect of nonnutritive sucking pre-feeding on behavioral state. Infants were randomly assigned to pacifier or rest groups. Pacifiers or rest were given for 5 minutes following routine caregiving and before each of the first 16 bottle feedings. A 12-category scale was used to measure state immediately(More)
Before crying, newborns exhibit oral cues. This study determined time and behavior between first oral cue and first sustained cry (2 minutes of crying) in 15 clinically normal infants postbirth (mean age 64 minutes). Mean minutes cue to cry was 31. Mean tonguing frequency was 108; hand-to-mouth (70); hand-passing-mouth (57); whimpering (49); rooting (19);(More)
BACKGROUND/RATIONALE Preterm infants in mechanical ventilation are vulnerable and may manifest physiological instability and a disorganized behavioural state when responding to external stimuli. Adequate positioning strategies may play an important role in protecting infants from environmental stressor and assisting quality of sleep. However, no study has(More)
The submental-vertical (S-V) radiograph has become popular in the assessment of craniofacial asymmetry because of ease in identifying reliable midline reference structures. To date, no standards of asymmetry that use the S-V projection have been reported. Submental-vertical radiographs were obtained on 44 adults. Subjects were excluded if previous(More)
Temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMJ ID) is the most common intra-articular TM disorder and can progress from TMJ ID with reduction to TMJ ID without reduction. It is not known whether this anatomical progression is associated with increasing levels of mandibular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine whether the level of(More)
Reliability of clinical measurement is essential to any clinical discipline. This investigation assessed intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability achieved in identifying contacting teeth in the intercuspal position. Shim stock and an articulating film were compared in the evaluation of occlusal contacts of 337 antagonist occlusal pairs in 24 young adults(More)