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Because awareness of emotional states in the self is a prerequisite to recognizing such states in others, alexithymia (ALEX), difficulty in identifying and expressing one's own emotional states, should involve impairment in empathy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared an ALEX group (n = 16) and a non-alexithymia (non-ALEX) group(More)
Alexithymic individuals have difficulty in recognizing and describing emotions in themselves. We investigated the neuronal basis of mentalizing in alexithymia to determine whether there is a common neuronal substrate associated with knowing the mental states of the self and others. Individuals high in alexithymia (n = 16) and low in alexithymia (n = 14)(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a newly discovered regulatory peptide related to vasoactive intestinal peptide and is found widely distributed throughout peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. We examined the ability of its two major forms of 38 (P38) and 27 (P27) amino acid residues to cross the murine blood-brain(More)
Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute independent mental states, such as beliefs, preferences and desires, to the self and others. Neuroimaging studies of normal adults have consistently demonstrated the importance of particular brain regions for ToM, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal pole (TP) and the medial prefrontal cortex(More)
Different regions of brain activation, as measured by fMRI, were evident in Japanese and Caucasian individuals observing facial expressions categorized as fearful according to Ekman criteria. Activation was evident in the posterior cingulate, supplementary motor cortex and the amygdala in Caucasians, while activation was evident in the right inferior(More)
BACKGROUND The construct validity of alexithymia and its assessment using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in Japan is unknown. Low reliability has been found for the third factor of the TAS-20 in some cultures, and the factor structure for psychosomatic disorder patients has not been adequately investigated. Although alexithymia most likely(More)
Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) is the last key enzyme in the trans-sulphuration pathway for biosynthesis of cysteine from methionine. Cysteine could be provided through diet; however, CSE has been shown to be important for the adequate supply of cysteine to synthesize glutathione, a major intracellular antioxidant. With a view to determining physiological(More)
The mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered crucial for human imitation and language learning and provides the basis for the development of empathy and mentalizing. Alexithymia (ALEX), which refers to deficiencies in the self-awareness of emotional states, has been reported to be associated with poor ability in various aspects of social cognition such as(More)
BACKGROUND Ghrelin is an endogenous peptide that stimulates growth hormone secretion, enhances appetite, and increases body weight and may play a role in eating disorders. OBJECTIVE The purpose was to determine whether any preproghrelin gene variants are associated with anthropometric measures, circulating ghrelin, lipid concentrations, insulin(More)
Alexithymia refers to difficulty in identifying and expressing one's emotions, and it is related to disturbed emotional regulation. It was originally proposed as a personality trait that plays a central role in psychosomatic diseases. This review of neuroimaging studies on alexithymia suggests that alexithymia is associated with reduced neural responses to(More)