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Because awareness of emotional states in the self is a prerequisite to recognizing such states in others, alexithymia (ALEX), difficulty in identifying and expressing one's own emotional states, should involve impairment in empathy. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared an ALEX group (n = 16) and a non-alexithymia (non-ALEX) group(More)
Alexithymic individuals have difficulty in recognizing and describing emotions in themselves. We investigated the neuronal basis of mentalizing in alexithymia to determine whether there is a common neuronal substrate associated with knowing the mental states of the self and others. Individuals high in alexithymia (n = 16) and low in alexithymia (n = 14)(More)
BACKGROUND The construct validity of alexithymia and its assessment using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) in Japan is unknown. Low reliability has been found for the third factor of the TAS-20 in some cultures, and the factor structure for psychosomatic disorder patients has not been adequately investigated. Although alexithymia most likely(More)
Different regions of brain activation, as measured by fMRI, were evident in Japanese and Caucasian individuals observing facial expressions categorized as fearful according to Ekman criteria. Activation was evident in the posterior cingulate, supplementary motor cortex and the amygdala in Caucasians, while activation was evident in the right inferior(More)
The Met66 allele of the Val66Met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been reported to be associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), and also lower minimum body mass index (BMI) and higher harm avoidance in AN. We genotyped the Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in 689 AN cases and 573 control subjects. There were no significant(More)
Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute independent mental states, such as beliefs, preferences and desires, to the self and others. Neuroimaging studies of normal adults have consistently demonstrated the importance of particular brain regions for ToM, the superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal pole (TP) and the medial prefrontal cortex(More)
Pain is a popular physical complaint in human. It is known that experimental anxiety modulates pain processing through hippocampal amplification, whereas it is not known whether a similar experimental reaction is related to daily physical complaints known as 'somatization'. The purpose of this study is to investigate the neural correlates of pain modulation(More)
Using perfusion microdialysis, the effect of intravenous injection of recombinant human interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release into the interstitial fluid of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT), medial preoptic area (MPOA), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), dorsal hippocampus (HPC), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the(More)
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex and heritable eating disorder characterized by dangerously low body weight. Neither candidate gene studies nor an initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) have yielded significant and replicated results. We performed a GWAS in 2907 cases with AN from 14 countries (15 sites) and 14 860 ancestrally matched controls as(More)
The mirror neuron system (MNS) is considered crucial for human imitation and language learning and provides the basis for the development of empathy and mentalizing. Alexithymia (ALEX), which refers to deficiencies in the self-awareness of emotional states, has been reported to be associated with poor ability in various aspects of social cognition such as(More)