Gemma Sweetman

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In many animal groups, certain individuals consistently appear at the forefront of coordinated movements [1-4]. How such leaders emerge is poorly understood [5, 6]. Here, we show that in pairs of sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, leadership arises from individual differences in the way that fish respond to their partner's movements. Having first(More)
A selected ion monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed to determine the interaction product formed by acrylonitrile (ACN) with the N-terminal amino group in haemoglobin. The product, N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEV), was analysed following its release from the protein by a modified Edman degradation procedure.(More)
When individuals stand to gain by interacting with one another, but disagree over their preferred course of collective action, coordination can be hard to achieve [1-4]. In previous work, we found that pairs of stickleback fish prefer to synchronize their trips out of cover to look for food [5], possibly because this reduces perceived predation risk [6]. To(More)
In a recent paper, we showed that leadership arises from individual behavioral differences in pairs of foraging stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Foraging data from randomly combined pairs of fish were analyzed using Markov Chain models to infer the individual movement rules underlying joint behavior. While both fish responded to partner movement,(More)
The surface coat of the infective larvae of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis was characterized with respect to its biophysical properties, morphology and composition. Labelling of larvae with the fluorescent surface probe PKH26 was lost after activation (by incubation in mammalian medium containing trypsin and bile), or following pronase(More)
We report the sequence analysis of an oligodeoxyribonucleotide by electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). For full sequence analysis of the oligomer, d(CGTAGCTACG), an enzyme digestion step followed by off-line high performance liquid chromatography was used. For ES-MS analysis, introducing the sample in an imidazole buffer with 70% acetonitrile increased(More)
Postlabeling can be one of the most sensitive methods for the measurement of DNA adducts. However, for the determination of alkylated adducts, essential requirements are standards which must be fully chemically characterized. In order to develop a postlabeling assay for monitoring exposure to genotoxic ethylating agents, the reaction of diethyl sulfate with(More)
A high-performance liquid chromatography protocol has been developed for the analysis of snake venoms. This system has been used to isolate eight fractions from Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom. The fractions have been analysed using electrospray mass spectrometry. A number of major components were found with masses ranging from 13,670 to(More)
Prions are responsible for spongiform diseases such as scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. It is now generally accepted that the disease mechanism involves the conversion from the normal form, PrPC, to the pathogenic form, PrPSc, and that this isoform is infectious. In the case of scrapie, 15 different forms of the disease have been described and(More)