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Most of the genes induced by hypoxia are regulated by a family of transcription factors termed hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). Under normoxic conditions, HIFalpha proteins are very unstable due to hydroxylation by a recently described family of proline hydroxylases termed EGL-Nine homologs (EGLN). Upon hydroxylation, HIFalpha is recognized by the product(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are heterodimeric (alpha/beta) transcription factors that play a fundamental role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen tension. In the presence of oxygen, the HIF-alpha subunit becomes hydroxylated at specific prolyl residues by prolyl hydroxylases. This post-translational modification is recognized by the von Hippel-Lindau(More)
The immunohistochemical distribution of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of glial filaments, was studied on coronal sections of the globus pallidus, the area CA4 of the hippocampus and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, 3 estrogen-sensitive areas of the rat brain. The number and the surface density of the GFAP-immunoreactive cells(More)
Freeze-fracture methodology was used to study the organization of the neuronal plasma membrane in the rat arcuate nucleus, an oestrogen sensitive area of the hypothalamus. The quantitative evaluation of freeze-fracture replicas of the perikarya, dendritic shafts and dendritic spines revealed that the numerical density of intramembranous particles varied(More)
Adult female rats showing regular vaginal cycles were studied in order to determine the number of axosomatic synapses in thin sections of the arcuate nucleus. The number of synapses per length of perikaryal membrane was significantly decreased in estrus, compared to other days of the estrous cycle (P less than 0.05). The reduction in the number of synapses(More)
Freeze-fracture methodology was used to study rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (AN) neuronal plasma membrane organization following in vitro perfusion of brain slices with 17-beta-estradiol (17 beta E2) or other test compounds. Physiological levels (10(-10) M) of 17 beta E2 caused an increase in neuronal membrane exo-endocytotic pits within 1 min of(More)
Sex steroids during the perinatal period are able to modify the postnatal development of neurons within steroid-sensitive areas in the rat brain. This study was designed to test the possible influence of the early postnatal levels of sex steroids on the morphology of the astrocytes. The experimental manipulation of the neonatal levels of sex steroids was(More)
The accumulation of reactive microglia in the degenerating areas of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) tissue is a key cellular event creating a chronic inflammatory environment that results in motoneuron death. We have developed a new culture system that consists in rat spinal cord embryonic explants in which motoneurons migrate outside the explant,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective degeneration and death of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex which causes progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. Although the molecular mechanisms causing the disease remain unknown, excitotoxicity and loss of trophic support have(More)
The postnatal development (from 2 days to 1 year) of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactive cells was studied in the arcuate nucleus of male hamsters. In the first postnatal week, GFAP immunoreactivity was observed in radial glial cells whose cell bodies were located in the ependymal layer. Cell processes of GFAP immunoreactive radial glia(More)