Gemma Carder

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Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we(More)
Insight into the emotional lives of animals is of utmost importance to the welfare of the billions of animals in our care, yet little is known about how to measure these states. Scientific understanding of how to measure and interpret positive emotional states is particularly lacking, although recent years have seen a notable increase in such studies. This(More)
Understanding how animals express positive emotions is an important area of focus for animal welfare science, yet it is widely neglected. Emotions can be either positive or negative in valence, depending on the rewarding or punishing nature of the stimulus, and they can vary in the degree of arousal or excitement. Previous literature has shown a strong(More)
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