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This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by(More)
Developmental exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in laboratory rodents. We evaluated in adult mice the behavioral effects of either fetal and/or neonatal CPF exposure at doses not inhibiting fetal and neonatal brain cholinesterase. CPF (3 or 6 mg/kg) was given by oral treatment to(More)
The ability of CB(1) receptors to regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum, together with the finding that, in experimental models of Huntington disease (HD), both endocannabinoid levels and CB(1) receptor densities are reduced, has prompted the investigation on the neuroprotective role of the cannabinoids in HD. Quinolinic acid (QA) is an(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form(More)
BACKGROUND The organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a pesticide largely used worldwide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF exposure during development at low doses can target different neurotransmitter systems in the absence of overt cholinergic effects. METHODS Late gestational exposure (gestational days 14-17) to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg(More)
Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic(More)
One hundred and sixty-four litters of Swiss CD-1 random-bred mice were used to assess learning and retention capacities during the first postnatal week. In Experiment 1, whole 7-day litters were exposed for 65 min to commercial extracts of either mint or lemon sprinkled over wood shavings. Five minutes after the beginning of the exposure, half of the(More)
CD-1 mice were exposed to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) both prenatally (gestational days 15-18; doses 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg) and postnatally (postnatal days 11-14, doses 0, 1 or 3 mg/kg). When four-month-olds, females underwent a social recognition test in which ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) and social investigation behavior emitted by a(More)
BACKGROUND Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a non-persistent organophosphate (OP) largely used as pesticide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF is a developmental neurotoxicant able to target immature central nervous system at dose levels well below the threshold of systemic toxicity. So far, few data are available on the potential short- and long-term(More)
CD-1 mice were exposed to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) throughout postnatal days (PND) 11-14 at the subtoxic dose of 3 mg/kg. At adolescent age, females and males underwent a sociability test in which level of sociability and social preference were measured. At adulthood only females' behavior was analyzed. Maternal behavior of(More)