Gemma Calamandrei

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Developmental exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in laboratory rodents. We evaluated in adult mice the behavioral effects of either fetal and/or neonatal CPF exposure at doses not inhibiting fetal and neonatal brain cholinesterase. CPF (3 or 6 mg/kg) was given by oral treatment to(More)
Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences as a result of their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically a result of contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as(More)
This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form(More)
The ability of CB(1) receptors to regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum, together with the finding that, in experimental models of Huntington disease (HD), both endocannabinoid levels and CB(1) receptor densities are reduced, has prompted the investigation on the neuroprotective role of the cannabinoids in HD. Quinolinic acid (QA) is an(More)
Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) are involved in excitotoxic/neurodegenerative processes, and A(2A)R ligands may be neuroprotective in models of HD. However, changes in the transcription, expression and function of A(2A)Rs have been reported to occur in HD models. The aim of the(More)
Recent evidence has shown that perinatal administration of zidovudine (AZT) to HIV-infected mothers reduces the risk of maternal-infant transmission of the virus. Treatment of pregnant seropositive women with AZT is becoming a common medical practice, despite the paucity of information about the potential neurotoxic/behavioral-teratogenic effects of AZT on(More)
The present study analyzed the short and long-term effects of prenatal zidovudine (AZT) exposure on learning and memory capacities of CD-1 mice. Two tasks normally used in rodents were used, namely a passive avoidance step-through task and a Morris navigation task. AZT (0, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/ml) was administered via drinking water to pregnant CD-1 females from(More)
Etiological and molecular studies on the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease have yet to determine the underlying mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with Alzheimer's disease, and has been hypothesized to promote neurodegeneration, by inhibiting brain methylation activity. The aim of this work was to determine whether a(More)