Learn More
This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by(More)
Recent evidence has shown that perinatal administration of zidovudine (AZT) to HIV-infected mothers reduces the risk of maternal-infant transmission of the virus. Treatment of pregnant seropositive women with AZT is becoming a common medical practice, despite the paucity of information about the potential neurotoxic/behavioral-teratogenic effects of AZT on(More)
The present study analyzed the short and long-term effects of prenatal zidovudine (AZT) exposure on learning and memory capacities of CD-1 mice. Two tasks normally used in rodents were used, namely a passive avoidance step-through task and a Morris navigation task. AZT (0, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/ml) was administered via drinking water to pregnant CD-1 females from(More)
Developmental exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in laboratory rodents. We evaluated in adult mice the behavioral effects of either fetal and/or neonatal CPF exposure at doses not inhibiting fetal and neonatal brain cholinesterase. CPF (3 or 6 mg/kg) was given by oral treatment to(More)
Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic(More)
The involvement of the central cholinergic system in predatory performance, and on the recall of individual and observational memory in Octopus vulgaris was studied by treating the animals with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The absence of the effects of the injection of scopolamine on blood circulation was also checked. Scopolamine did(More)
The present study provides a characterization of the behavioral changes induced in preweaning mice by prenatal exposure to lamivudine (3TC), an antiviral drug recently entered in the clinical practice to treat HIV patients. Pregnant CD1 mice were given per os bidaily either 3TC at different doses (125, 250, or 500 mg/kg) or vehicle solution (saline 0.9%)(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form(More)
Etiological and molecular studies on the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease have yet to determine the underlying mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with Alzheimer's disease, and has been hypothesized to promote neurodegeneration, by inhibiting brain methylation activity. The aim of this work was to determine whether a(More)
CD-1 mice were exposed to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) both prenatally (gestational days 15-18; doses 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg) and postnatally (postnatal days 11-14, doses 0, 1 or 3 mg/kg). When four-month-olds, females underwent a social recognition test in which ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) and social investigation behavior emitted by a(More)