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Developmental exposure to the organophosphorous insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in laboratory rodents. We evaluated in adult mice the behavioral effects of either fetal and/or neonatal CPF exposure at doses not inhibiting fetal and neonatal brain cholinesterase. CPF (3 or 6 mg/kg) was given by oral treatment to(More)
This is the report of the first workshop on Incorporating In Vitro Alternative Methods for Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) Testing into International Hazard and Risk Assessment Strategies, held in Ispra, Italy, on 19-21 April 2005. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and jointly organized by(More)
The involvement of the central cholinergic system in predatory performance, and on the recall of individual and observational memory in Octopus vulgaris was studied by treating the animals with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The absence of the effects of the injection of scopolamine on blood circulation was also checked. Scopolamine did(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support of the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG 426). INFORMATION SOURCES AND ANALYSIS In this review we summarize extensive scientific efforts that form(More)
Etiological and molecular studies on the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease have yet to determine the underlying mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with Alzheimer's disease, and has been hypothesized to promote neurodegeneration, by inhibiting brain methylation activity. The aim of this work was to determine whether a(More)
The ability of CB(1) receptors to regulate the release of glutamate in the striatum, together with the finding that, in experimental models of Huntington disease (HD), both endocannabinoid levels and CB(1) receptor densities are reduced, has prompted the investigation on the neuroprotective role of the cannabinoids in HD. Quinolinic acid (QA) is an(More)
Organophosphorus insecticides, as Chlorpyrifos (CPF), are widely used in agriculture and against household pests; these compounds receive an increasing consideration as potential endocrine disrupters. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential short- and long-term effects of CPF on thyroid and adrenal glands in CD1 mice following exposure at(More)
Neonatal mice were treated daily on postnatal days (pnds) 1 through 4 or 11 through 14 with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), at doses (1 or 3 mg/kg) that do not evoke systemic toxicity. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was evaluated within 24 h from termination of treatments. Pups treated on pnds 1-4 underwent ultrasonic(More)
CD-1 mice were exposed to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) both prenatally (gestational days 15-18; doses 0, 3 or 6 mg/kg) and postnatally (postnatal days 11-14, doses 0, 1 or 3 mg/kg). When four-month-olds, females underwent a social recognition test in which ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) and social investigation behavior emitted by a(More)
BACKGROUND The organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a pesticide largely used worldwide. Studies from animal models indicate that CPF exposure during development at low doses can target different neurotransmitter systems in the absence of overt cholinergic effects. METHODS Late gestational exposure (gestational days 14-17) to CPF at the dose of 6 mg/kg(More)