Silica deposition is a fundamental process in sponges. Most sponges in the Classes Demospongiae and Hexactinellida secrete siliceous elements, which can subsequently fuse, interlock with each other, or form three-dimensional structures connected by spongin. The resulting skeletal frameworks allow sponges to grow upwards and facilitate water exchange with… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160718.].
Sponges show the highest diversity of associated bacteria among marine invertebrates. Immunological evidence traces the origin of the sponge bacterial symbioses to the Precambrian era. Hence, sponges appear to be ideally suited for studying the evolutionary origins of prokaryote-metazoan associations. Sponges produce either calcareous or siliceous… (More)