Silica deposition is a fundamental process in sponges. Most sponges in the Classes Demospongiae and Hexactinellida secrete siliceous elements, which can subsequently fuse, interlock with each other, or form three-dimensional structures connected by spongin. The resulting skeletal frameworks allow sponges to grow upwards and facilitate water exchange with… (More)
From an evolutionary point of view, sponges are ideal targets to study marine symbioses as they are the most ancient living metazoans and harbour highly diverse microbial communities. A recently discovered association between the sponge Hemimycale columella and an intracellular bacterium that generates large amounts of calcite spherules has prompted… (More)
BACKGROUND Sponges are particularly prone to hiding cryptic species as their paradigmatic plasticity often favors species phenotypic convergence as a result of adaptation to similar habitat conditions. Hemimycale is a sponge genus (Family Hymedesmiidae, Order Poecilosclerida) with four formally described species, from which only Hemimycale columella has… (More)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160718.].
Species of Tetillidae are distributed worldwide. However, some genera are unresolved and only a few genera and species of this family have been described from the Antarctic. The incorporation of 25 new COI and 18S sequences of Antarctic Tetillidae to those used recently for assessing the genera phylogeny, has allowed us to improve the resolution of some… (More)
Sponges show the highest diversity of associated bacteria among marine invertebrates. Immunological evidence traces the origin of the sponge bacterial symbioses to the Precambrian era. Hence, sponges appear to be ideally suited for studying the evolutionary origins of prokaryote-metazoan associations. Sponges produce either calcareous or siliceous… (More)