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Ischemic tissues require mechanisms to alert the immune system of impending cell damage. The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells. We elucidate the mechanism by which HMGB1, one of the key alarm molecules released during liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), is mobilized in(More)
INTRODUCTION Current radiofrequency ablation (RFA) techniques require invasive needle placement and are limited by accuracy of targeting. The purpose of this study was to test a novel non invasive radiowave machine that uses RF energy to thermally destroy tissue. Gold nanoparticles were designed and produced to facilitate tissue heating by the radiowaves.(More)
BACKGROUND Although the accumulation of hydrophobic bile acid (e.g., glycine conjugated chenodeoxycholic acid, GCDC) is considered to be an important factor contributing to cholestatic liver dysfunction, its pathogenesis is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the bile salt GCDC on the regulation of iNOS expression, a(More)
BACKGROUND Liver ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with profound arginine depletion due to arginase release from injured hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO), shown to have protective effects in I/R, is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the substrate arginine. The purpose of this study was to determine if nor-NOHA, a novel arginase(More)
Liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with profound arginine depletion due to arginase release from injured hepatocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether arginase inhibition with N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) would increase circulating arginine levels and decrease hepatic damage during liver I/R injury. The(More)
Endogenous ligands released from damaged cells, so-called damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), activate innate signaling pathways including the TLRs. We have shown that hepatic, warm ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, generating local, noninfectious DAMPs, promotes inflammation, which is largely TLR4-dependent. Here, we demonstrate(More)
Hepatic ischemia occurs in the settings of trauma, transplantation, and elective liver resections. The initiating events that account for local organ damage are only partially understood. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes involved in both innate and acquired immunity;(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a NF released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis and as an early mediator of inflammation following injury. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the proinflammatory role of HMGB1, preconditioning with HMGB1 results in protection following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Pretreatment of mice(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to review contemporary results of elective open infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) and pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (PAAA) repairs and determine predictors of death and acute and 1-year renal dysfunction (RD). METHODS A retrospective review identified 432 consecutive patients undergoing open IAAA (233(More)
BACKGROUND Thoracic surgeons are frequently called upon to provide exposure to the anterior cervicothoracic, thoracic, and proximal lumbar spine. We reviewed our surgical experience and the perioperative outcomes of these spinal approaches. Relevant technical and anatomic considerations of each procedure are highlighted. METHODS A total of 213 patients(More)