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Ischemic tissues require mechanisms to alert the immune system of impending cell damage. The nuclear protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can activate inflammatory pathways when released from ischemic cells. We elucidate the mechanism by which HMGB1, one of the key alarm molecules released during liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), is mobilized in(More)
Endogenous ligands released from damaged cells, so-called damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), activate innate signaling pathways including the TLRs. We have shown that hepatic, warm ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, generating local, noninfectious DAMPs, promotes inflammation, which is largely TLR4-dependent. Here, we demonstrate(More)
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a NF released extracellularly as a late mediator of lethality in sepsis and as an early mediator of inflammation following injury. Here we demonstrate that in contrast to the proinflammatory role of HMGB1, preconditioning with HMGB1 results in protection following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Pretreatment of mice(More)
Hepatic ischemia occurs in the settings of trauma, transplantation, and elective liver resections. The initiating events that account for local organ damage are only partially understood. Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a number of genes involved in both innate and acquired immunity;(More)
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