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Down syndrome confers a 20-fold increased risk of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and polysomy 21 is the most frequent somatic aneuploidy among all B-ALLs. Yet the mechanistic links between chromosome 21 triplication and B-ALL remain undefined. Here we show that germline triplication of only 31 genes orthologous to human chromosome 21q22(More)
The effects of growth and limb immobilization on muscle mass, total physiological cross-section (PC), the number of sarcomeres in series and the length of sarcomere components were investigated in the soleus muscle (SOL) and compared to previously obtained data on gastrocnemius (GM) muscles of rats between age 10 and 16 weeks. For SOL this period of growth(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Microarray gene expression profiling has been widely applied to characterize hematologic malignancies, has attributed a molecular signature to leukemia subclasses and has allowed new subclasses to be distinguished. We set out to use microarray technology to identify novel genes relevant for leukemogenesis. To this end we used a(More)
One of the biggest challenges in tumour research is the possibility to reprogram cancer cells towards less aggressive phenotypes. In this study, we reprogrammed primary Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-derived cells towards a more differentiated and less oncogenic phenotype by activating the Wnt pathway in a hypoxic microenvironment. Hypoxia usually correlates(More)
The homeobox gene Carp-Ovx1 shows similarity to vertebrate and invertebrate Ovx genes and to Drosophila unplugged. Its expression pattern was studied by in situ hybridization in carp embryos and juveniles. During segmentation, expression becomes gradually limited to the neural tube. In juveniles up to 9 weeks old, cells in the ventral telencephalon, the(More)
Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of(More)
Vertebrate CASK is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins. CASK is present in the nervous system where it binds to neurexin, a transmembrane protein localized in the presynaptic membrane. The Drosophila homologue of CASK is CAKI or CAMGUK. CAKI is expressed in the nervous system of larvae and adult flies. In adult(More)
Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL7R) is required for normal lymphoid development. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency. Here, we describe somatic gain-of-function mutations in IL7R in pediatric B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The mutations cause either a serine-to-cysteine substitution at(More)
The velocity of 'unloaded' shortening (V0) and the force-velocity relation were studied during fused tetani (0.5-2.0 degrees C) in short successive segments along the entire length of single fibres isolated from the tibialis anterior muscle of Rana temporaria. The segments were defined by opaque markers of hair that were placed on the fibre surface, 0.5-0.8(More)
Biosensors would benefit from further miniaturization, increased detection rate and independence from external pumps and other bulky equipment. Whereas transportation systems built around molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments hold significant promise in the latter regard, recent proof-of-principle devices based on the microtubule-kinesin motor system(More)