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Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL gene are associated with high-risk pediatric, adult and therapy-associated acute leukemias. These patients need to be identified, treated appropriately and minimal residual disease was monitored by quantitative PCR techniques. Genomic DNA was isolated from individual acute leukemia patients to identify and(More)
Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL7R) is required for normal lymphoid development. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency. Here, we describe somatic gain-of-function mutations in IL7R in pediatric B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The mutations cause either a serine-to-cysteine substitution at(More)
We report gene expression and other analyses to elucidate the molecular characteristics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). We find that by gene expression DS-ALL is a highly heterogeneous disease not definable as a unique entity. Nevertheless, 62% (33/53) of the DS-ALL samples analyzed were characterized by high(More)
Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring the fusion mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-AF4 is associated with a dismal prognosis and very brief latency. Our limited understanding of transformation by MLL-AF4 is reflected in murine models, which do not accurately recapitulate the human disease. Human models for MLL-AF4 disease do not exist. Hematopoietic stem(More)
Down syndrome confers a 20-fold increased risk of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and polysomy 21 is the most frequent somatic aneuploidy among all B-ALLs. Yet the mechanistic links between chromosome 21 triplication and B-ALL remain undefined. Here we show that germline triplication of only 31 genes orthologous to human chromosome 21q22(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Microarray gene expression profiling has been widely applied to characterize hematologic malignancies, has attributed a molecular signature to leukemia subclasses and has allowed new subclasses to be distinguished. We set out to use microarray technology to identify novel genes relevant for leukemogenesis. To this end we used a(More)
Hypoxia commonly occurs in solid tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and often interferes with therapies designed to stop their growth. We found that pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG)-derived precursors showed greater expansion under lower oxygen tension, typical of solid tumors, than normal CNS precursors. Hypoxia inhibited p53 activation and(More)
Pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) has achieved an 80% cure rate as a result of a risk-adapted therapy largely based on minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. However, relapse is still the most frequent adverse event, occurring mainly in the patients with intermediate MRD levels (intermediate risk, IR), emphasizing the(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of most common and still poorly treated primary brain tumors. In search for new therapeutic approaches, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) induce astroglial commitment in GBM-derived cells in vitro. However, we recently suggested that hypoxia, which is characteristic of the brain niche where GBM reside,(More)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disease of the white blood cells. The etiology of ALL is believed to be multifactorial and likely to involve an interplay of environmental and genetic variables. We performed a genome-wide association study of 355 750 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 474 controls and 419 childhood ALL cases(More)