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Measles virus (MV) is highly infectious, and has long been thought to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. However, epithelial cells do not express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which is the high-affinity cellular receptor for wild-type MV strains. We have generated a new recombinant MV strain expressing(More)
Specific pathogen free (SPF) domestic cats were inoculated with tissue homogenate obtained from a Chinese leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis) that had died in a North American zoo from a natural infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). The cats developed a transient cell-associated CDV viraemia along with pronounced lymphopenia but did not show any(More)
BACKGROUND The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is associated with a newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We did clinical and experimental studies to assess the role of this virus in the cause of SARS. METHODS We tested clinical and postmortem samples from 436 SARS patients in six countries(More)
Wild birds have been implicated in the expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) outbreaks across Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa (in addition to traditional transmission by infected poultry, contaminated equipment, and people). Such a role would require wild birds to excrete virus in the absence of debilitating disease. By(More)
During the 2003 to 2004 outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in Asia, there were anecdotal reports of fatal infection in domestic cats, although this species is considered resistant to influenza. We experimentally inoculated cats with H5N1 virus intratracheally and by feeding them virus-infected chickens. The cats excreted virus, developed severe(More)
BACKGROUND Unprecedented spread between birds and mammals of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype has resulted in hundreds of human infections with a high fatality rate. This has highlighted the urgent need for the development of H5N1 vaccines that can be produced rapidly and in sufficient quantities. Potential pandemic(More)
Measles virus (MV) is hypothesized to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, followed by viremia mediated by infected monocytes. However, neither of these cell types express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150), which has been identified as the receptor for wild-type MV. We have infected rhesus and cynomolgus(More)
There is concern that variola virus, the aetiological agent of smallpox, may be used as a biological weapon. For this reason several countries are now stockpiling (vaccinia virus-based) smallpox vaccine. Although the preventive use of smallpox vaccination has been well documented, little is known about its efficacy when used after exposure to the virus.(More)
Only two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus is naturally resistant to adamantanes.(More)