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A complete list of the titles in this series appears at the end of this volume. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or(More)
The validation of surrogate endpoints has been studied by Prentice (1989). He presented a definition as well as a set of criteria, which are equivalent only if the surrogate and true endpoints are binary. Freedman et al. (1992) supplemented these criteria with the so-called 'proportion explained'. Buyse and Molenberghs (1998) proposed replacing the(More)
In the analyses of incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, there has been a shift, away from simple methods that are valid only if the data are missing completely at random, to more principled ignorable analyses, which are valid under the less restrictive missing at random assumption. The availability of the necessary standard statistical software(More)
It is shown how hierarchical biomedical data, such as coming from longitudinal clinical trials, meta-analyses, or a combination of both, can be used to provide evidence for quantitative strength of reliability, agreement, generalizability, and related measures that derive from association concepts. When responses are of a continuous, Gaussian type, the(More)
The vocal quality of a patient is modeled by means of a Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI), which is designed to establish an objective and quantitative correlate of the perceived vocal quality. The DSI is based on the weighted combination of the following selected set of voice measurements: highest frequency (F(0)-High in Hz), lowest intensity (I-Low in dB),(More)
Whenever inference for variance components is required, the choice between one-sided and two-sided tests is crucial. This choice is usually driven by whether or not negative variance components are permitted. For two-sided tests, classical inferential procedures can be followed, based on likelihood ratios, score statistics, or Wald statistics. For one-sided(More)
Rapid laboratory diagnosis is critical for treating, managing, and preventing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We evaluated and compared the potential for MRSA detection of five chromogenic media, Brilliance MRSA agar (Oxoid), ChromID (bioMérieux), MRSASelect (Bio-Rad), CHROMagar (CHROMagar Microbiology), and BBL-CHROMagar (BD(More)
The validation of surrogate endpoints has been studied by Prentice (1989, Statistics in Medicine 8, 431-440) and Freedman, Graubard, and Schatzkin (1992, Statistics in Medicine 11, 167-178). We extended their proposals in the cases where the surrogate and the final endpoints are both binary or normally distributed. Letting T and S be random variables that(More)
Treatment effects are often evaluated by comparing change over time in outcome measures; however, valid analyses of longitudinal data can be problematic, particularly if some data are missing. For decades, the last observation carried forward (LOCF) approach has been a common method of handling missing data. Considerable advances in statistical methodology(More)