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Visual backward masking is a versatile tool for understanding principles and limitations of visual information processing in the human brain. However, the mechanisms underlying masking are still poorly understood. In the current contribution, the authors show that a structurally simple mathematical model can explain many spatial and temporal effects in(More)
Individual behavioral performance during learning is known to be affected by modulatory factors, such as stress and motivation, and by genetic predispositions that influence sensitivity to these factors. Despite numerous studies, no integrative framework is available that could predict how a given animal would perform a certain learning task in a realistic(More)
Stress has complex effects on memory function that can vary depending on the type of information that is learned and in relation to inter-individual characteristics. Recent work has also shown that stress can switch performance between memory systems, biasing it toward habit in detriment of spatial or goal-directed strategies. In addition, novel synaptic(More)
Episodic memory performance is the result of distinct mental processes, such as learning, memory maintenance, and emotional modulation of memory strength. Such processes can be effectively dissociated using computational models. Here we performed gene set enrichment analyses of model parameters estimated from the episodic memory performance of 1,765 healthy(More)
Stress and genetic background regulate different aspects of behavioral learning through the action of stress hormones and neuromodulators. In reinforcement learning (RL) models, meta-parameters such as learning rate, future reward discount factor, and exploitation-exploration factor, control learning dynamics and performance. They are hypothesized to be(More)
The Morris Water Maze is a widely used task in studies of spatial learning with rodents. Classical performance measures of animals in the Morris Water Maze include the escape latency, and the cumulative distance to the platform. Other methods focus on classifying trajectory patterns to stereotypical classes representing different animal strategies. However,(More)
Memory performance is the result of many distinct mental processes, such as memory encoding, forgetting, and modulation of memory strength by emotional arousal. These processes, which are subserved by partly distinct molecular profiles, are not always amenable to direct observation. Therefore, computational models can be used to make inferences about(More)
Suppose we train an animal in a conditioning experiment. Can one predict how a given animal, under given experimental conditions, would perform the task? Since various factors such as stress, motivation, genetic background, and previous errors in task performance can influence animal behaviour, this appears to be a very challenging aim. Reinforcement(More)
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