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Chronic administration of ethanol results in the development of tolerance and dependence. The molecular mechanism underlying these behavioral actions of ethanol is poorly understood. Several lines of evidence have suggested that some of the pharmacological actions of ethanol are mediated via a potentiation of GABAergic transmission. Chronic ethanol(More)
The nervous system is classically organized into sympathetic and parasympathetic systems acting in opposition to maintain physiological homeostasis. Here, we report that both systems converge in the activation of β2-adrenoceptors of splenic regulatory lymphocytes to control systemic inflammation. Vagus nerve stimulation fails to control serum TNF levels in(More)
The role of STAT3 in infectious diseases remains undetermined, in part because unphosphorylated STAT3 has been considered an inactive protein. Here, we report that unphosphorylated STAT3 contributes to cholinergic anti-inflammation, prevents systemic inflammation, and improves survival in sepsis. Bacterial endotoxin induced STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in(More)
Hemorrhage remains a common cause of death despite the recent advances in critical care, in part because conventional resuscitation fluids fail to prevent lethal inflammatory responses. Here, we analyzed whether ethyl pyruvate can provide a therapeutic anti-inflammatory potential to resuscitation fluids and prevent organ damage in porcine hemorrhage. Adult(More)
Classically, sympathetic and parasympathetic systems act in opposition to maintain the physiological homeostasis. In this article, we report that both systems work together to restrain systemic inflammation in life-threatening conditions such as sepsis. This study indicates that vagus nerve and cholinergic agonists activate the sympathetic noradrenergic(More)
Interactions of toll-like receptors (TLRs) with nonmicrobial factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of early trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS)-induced organ injury and inflammation. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that TLR4 mutant (TLR4 mut) mice would be more resistant to T/HS-induced gut injury and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) priming than their(More)
Many anti-inflammatory strategies that are successful in treating sepsis in healthy animals fail in clinical trials, in part because sepsis normally involves immunocompromised patients, and massive lymphocyte apoptosis prevents immunomodulation. In this article, we report a new set of regulatory lymphocytes that are able to re-establish the cholinergic(More)
Inhibiting single cytokines produced modest effects in clinical trials, in part because the cytokines were not specific for sepsis, and sepsis may require cellular strategies. Previous studies reported that mast cells (MCs) fight infections in early sepsis. In this study, we report that MC stabilizers restrain serum TNF levels and improve survival in(More)