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BACKGROUND Organ dysfunction or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome caused by developing immunological dysfunction and subsequent sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after trauma is the leading cause of death in trauma patient. It is believed that mitogen-activated protein kinase) (p38MAPK) is one of the most important kinases in(More)
Xanthoceraside, a novel triterpenoid saponin extracted from the fruit husks of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, reverses cognitive deficits in intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ25–35 or Aβ1–42 mice. However, whether xanthoceraside has a positive effect on hyperphosphorylated tau protein remains unclear. We investigated the effects of xanthoceraside on(More)
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonists showed anti-amnesic properties in Alzheimer’s disease models and anti-inflammatory properties in cerebrum ischaemia models. The agonist of Sig-1R was reported to up-regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus of mice. Here, we investigate whether the activation of Sig-1R attenuates the(More)
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Therefore, the suppression of neuroinflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine might theoretically slow down the progression of AD. Xanthoceraside, a novel triterpenoid saponin extracted(More)
Silibinin was reported to be effective in reversing the learning and memory deficits of several AD animal models. These improvements are thought to be regulated by various factors, including antioxidative stress, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity and Aβ aggregation. However, there are still no reports that demonstrate the effect of silibinin on(More)
Xanthoceraside, a triterpenoid saponin, has been shown to reverse cognitive deficits in several Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models. However, the effects of xanthoceraside on the Aβ deposition pathology and the APP processing in AD are unclear. Here, we show that xanthoceraside at doses of 0.08 and 0.32 mg/kg/d for 6 months significantly improved(More)
Xanthoceras sorbifolia, a traditional Chinese folk medicine with anti-inflammatory effects, has been used for a long time in China, especially in the Inner Mongolian area for the treatment of rheumatism. Inflammation is one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary(More)
Silibinin has been widely used to treat liver diseases due to its antioxidant activity. However, the effects of silibinin on the central nervous system have not been thoroughly investigated. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease are the accumulation of amyloid β protein, development of neurofibrillary tangles and increased oxidative stress,(More)
Sigma-1 receptor (σ1r) activation could attenuate the learning and memory deficits in the AD model, ischemia model and others. In our previous study, the activation of σ1r increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), possibly through the NR2A-induced pathway, and σ1r agonists might function as neuroprotectant agents in vascular(More)
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