Gayle C. Windham

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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are complex, lifelong, neurodevelopmental conditions of largely unknown cause. They are much more common than previously believed, second in frequency only to mental retardation among the serious developmental disorders. Although a heritable component has been demonstrated in ASD etiology, putative risk genes have yet to be(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore possible associations between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and environmental exposures, we linked the California autism surveillance system to estimated hazardous air pollutant (HAP) concentrations compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. METHODS Subjects included 284 children with ASD and 657 controls, born in 1994 in(More)
BACKGROUND Ambient levels of pesticides ("pesticide drift") are detectable at residences near agricultural field sites. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to evaluate the hypothesis that maternal residence near agricultural pesticide applications during key periods of gestation could be associated with the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children.(More)
We examined the association of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke with birth weight and gestational age in a large, prospective study. We also compared these endpoints between infants of active maternal smokers and those of non-smoking, non-ETS exposed women. Pregnant women were interviewed by telephone during the first trimester, and pregnancy outcome(More)
BACKGROUND Hormonally active environmental agents have been measured among U.S. children using exposure biomarkers in urine. However, little is known about their variation by race, age, sex, and geography, and no data exist for newly developed biomarkers. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to characterize relevant, prevalent exposures for a study of female pubertal(More)
Between 2001 and 2003, the authors studied pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality among 202 married women in West Bengal, India. Reproductive histories were ascertained using structured interviews. Arsenic exposure during each pregnancy, including all water sources used, was assessed; this involved measurements from 409 wells. Odds ratios for spontaneous(More)
Following our first report on elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in California women, we expanded our investigation to include diverse groups of local women. We analyzed additional adipose and serum samples collected in the late 1990s from San Francisco Bay Area women participating in a breast cancer study and in a reproductive(More)
In a large case-control study (n = 1,926) of spontaneous abortion (SAB), exposure to solvents was ascertained by a telephone interview that asked about occupational use of 18 specific solvents or products, as well as an open-ended "other" solvent category. The adjusted odds ratio for use of any solvent was 1.1 (0.8, 1.5). Solvents for which at least a(More)
Previous studies are inconsistent regarding whether there are independent effects of maternal and paternal age on the risk of autism. Different biologic mechanisms are suggested by maternal and paternal age effects. The study population included all California singletons born in 1989-2002 (n = 7,550,026). Children with autism (n = 23,311) were identified(More)
Because of the strong association of active smoking with fetal growth retardation, increasing interest has focused on whether there is also an association with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We examined this issue in a retrospective study and by conducting a review of the literature and data pooling. In our study, nonsmoking women with(More)