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Recently, R. Richardson, A. Vishney, and J. Lee (1999) reported that ambient odor cues that were previously paired with footshock potentiate the acoustic startle response in rats. The authors of the present study extend those findings by using a discrete 4-s amyl acetate odor paired with footshock to address several parametric issues that might be important(More)
The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and to context(More)
In mammals, long-term memory induced by Pavlovian fear conditioning has been shown to be dependent on the amygdala during a protein and mRNA synthesis-dependent phase of memory consolidation. We have used genes identified in a kainic acid model of synaptic plasticity as in situ hybridization probes during the consolidation period after fear conditioning. We(More)
The present research was initiated to examine the prevalence of forced consumption and its role in subsequent food rejection. A forced consumption episode was defined as a situation where Person(s) A forced or demanded Person B to consume a specific substance against Person B's will. An initial survey of 407 college students revealed that over 69% of them(More)
On the basis of previous work that has shown a taste can potentiate odor-aversion conditioning in AX+ conditioning, 6 experiments used rats to examine the effects of pairing a preconditioned taste (A) with a novel odor cue (X) in an A+/AX+ aversion conditioning design. Experiments 1A and 1B demonstrated that a preconditioned taste produced a robust odor(More)
Recently, we reported that discrete (4-sec) olfactory cues paired with footshock serve as effective conditioned stimuli (CSs) for potentiating the acoustic startle response in rats using the fear-potentiated startle paradigm. Because odors are such salient cues for the rat, and because of the robust olfactory conditioning observed previously, the current(More)
INTRODUCTION Self-assessment deficits are common in schizophrenia and span multiple aspects of functioning, including awareness of symptoms, and the ability to assess objective levels of cognitive deficits and everyday functioning. Whereas impaired awareness of illness in bipolar disorder during symptomatic periods is well understood, awareness of(More)
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