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We report population-based concentrations (stratified by age, sex, and composite race/ethnicity variables) of selective metabolites of chlorpyrifos (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCPY), chlorpyrifos methyl (TCPY), malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid; MDA), diazinon (2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine; IMPY), methyl parathion (para-nitrophenol; PNP),(More)
We report population-based concentrations, stratified by age, sex, and racial/ethnic groups, of dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of multiple organophosphorus pesticides. We measured dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), dimethyldithiophosphate (DMDTP), diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP), and diethyldithiophosphate(More)
Over the last several decades, mass poisonings of diethylene glycol (DEG), usually ingested as an unintended component of pharmaceutical preparations, have occurred. In order to promptly halt the rise in deaths due to ingestion of these pharmaceuticals, laboratory analysis has often been employed to identify and quantify the etiologic agent after the(More)
Urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites have been used to estimate human exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. We developed a method for quantifying the six DAP urinary metabolites of at least 28 organophosphorus pesticides using lyophilization and chemical derivatization followed by analysis using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-tandem mass(More)
This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were(More)
Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are urinary metabolites and breakdown products of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. Urinary DAPs are widely used to assess exposure to OP pesticides in epidemiologic studies. Recent evidence suggests that preformed DAPs are present in food and that they may also be present in other parts of the environment. Thus, DAP concentrations(More)
Human exposure to preformed dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in food or the environment may affect the reliability of DAP urinary metabolites as biomarkers of organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure. We conducted a study to investigate the presence of DAPs in indoor residential environments and their association with children's urinary DAP levels. We collected dust(More)
Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition(More)
The objective of our study was to compare three vastly different analytical methods for measuring urinary metabolites of pyrethroid and pyrethrum insecticides to determine whether they could produce comparable data and to determine if similar analytical characteristics of the methods could be obtained by a secondary laboratory. This study was conducted as a(More)
We have developed a gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for measuring pyrethroid, organophosphorus, carbamate and fipronil pesticides and the synergist piperonyl butoxide in human plasma. Plasma samples were extracted using solid phase extraction and were then concentrated for injection and analysis using isotope dilution gas(More)