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Synaptogenesis, the generation and maturation of functional synapses between nerve cells, is an essential step in the development of neuronal networks in the brain. It is thought to be triggered by members of the neuroligin family of postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins, which may form transsynaptic contacts with presynaptic alpha- and beta-neurexins and(More)
In the mammalian CNS, each neuron typically receives thousands of synaptic inputs from diverse classes of neurons. Synaptic transmission to the postsynaptic neuron relies on localized and transmitter-specific differentiation of the plasma membrane with postsynaptic receptor, scaffolding, and adhesion proteins accumulating in precise apposition to(More)
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and represents the leading genetic cause for mental retardation in girls. MeCP2-mutant mice have been generated to study the molecular mechanisms of the disease. It was suggested that an imbalance between excitatory and(More)
Recent evidence has shown that the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases is not only dependent on binding of their ligands but in addition requires adhesion molecules as coreceptors. We have identified CD44v6 as a coreceptor for c-Met in several tumor and primary cells. The CD44v6 ectodomain is required for c-Met activation, whereas the cytoplasmic tail(More)
Neurexins constitute a large family of highly variable cell-surface molecules that may function in synaptic transmission and/or synapse formation. Each of the three known neurexin genes encodes two major neurexin variants, alpha- and beta-neurexins, that are composed of distinct extracellular domains linked to identical intracellular sequences. Deletions of(More)
The synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin and neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. Here, we found that Caenorhabditis elegans neurexin (NRX-1) and neuroligin (NLG-1) mediated a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibited neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. Retrograde signaling was(More)
Central nervous glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome or anxiety disorder. Many drugs employed to treat these conditions inhibit GSK3β either directly or indirectly. We studied how conditional knockout of GSK3β affected structural(More)
Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and represents the leading genetic cause for mental retardation in girls. MeCP2-mutant mice have been generated to study the molecular mechanisms of the disease. It was suggested that an imbalance between excitatory and(More)
Neuronal circuits develop, adjust to experience and degenerate in response to injury or disease in the course of weeks and months. Available recording techniques, however, typically sample physiological properties of identified neurons on the time scale of minutes and hours. Thus, in order to obtain a full understanding of a long term physiological process(More)
The Ca(2+)- and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the related ATF-1 and CREM are stimulus-inducible transcription factors that link certain forms of cellular activity to changes in gene expression. They are attributed to complex integrative activation characteristics, but current biochemical technology does not allow dynamic imaging of CREB(More)
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