Gaya K Amarasinghe

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In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the(More)
The RNA genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a approximately 120 nucleotide Psi-packaging signal that is recognized by the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein during virus assembly. The Psi-site contains four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that possess overlapping and possibly redundant functions. The present studies(More)
Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases. They control processes including T cell activation, phagocytosis, and migration of normal and transformed cells. We report the structure and biophysical and cellular analyses of the five-domain autoinhibitory element of Vav1. The catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain of Vav1 is(More)
The Ebola virus (EBOV) genome only encodes a single viral polypeptide with enzymatic activity, the viral large (L) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein. However, currently, there is limited information about the L protein, which has hampered the development of antivirals. Therefore, antifiloviral therapeutic efforts must include additional targets such as(More)
Ebola viral protein 35 (VP35), encoded by the highly pathogenic Ebola virus, facilitates host immune evasion by antagonizing antiviral signaling pathways, including those initiated by RIG-I–like receptors. Here we report the crystal structure of the Ebola VP35 interferon inhibitory domain (IID) bound to short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which together with(More)
During antiviral defense, interferon (IFN) signaling triggers nuclear transport of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 (PY-STAT1), which occurs via a subset of karyopherin alpha (KPNA) nuclear transporters. Many viruses, including Ebola virus, actively antagonize STAT1 signaling to counteract the antiviral effects of IFN. Ebola virus VP24 protein (eVP24) binds(More)
During viral RNA synthesis, Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) alternates between an RNA-template-bound form and a template-free form to provide the viral polymerase access to the RNA template. In addition, newly synthesized NP must be prevented from indiscriminately binding to noncognate RNAs. Here, we investigate the molecular bases for these critical(More)
Although interferon (IFN) signaling induces genes that limit viral infection, many pathogenic viruses overcome this host response. As an example, 2'-O methylation of the 5' cap of viral RNA subverts mammalian antiviral responses by evading restriction of Ifit1, an IFN-stimulated gene that regulates protein synthesis. However, alphaviruses replicate(More)
Viral protein 35 (VP35), encoded by filoviruses, is a multifunctional dsRNA binding protein that plays important roles in viral replication, innate immune evasion, and pathogenesis. The multifunctional nature of these proteins also presents opportunities to develop countermeasures that target distinct functional regions. However, functional validation and(More)
Activation of innate immune signaling pathways through cytosolic RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) is a crucial response that is antagonized by many viruses. A variety of RNA-related pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) have been identified and their role in RLR activation has been examined. Recent studies suggest that several virus-encoded components(More)