Gay R Holstein

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Autophagy is a regulated lysosomal degradation process that involves autophagosome formation and transport. Although recent evidence indicates that basal levels of autophagy protect against neurodegeneration, the exact mechanism whereby this occurs is not known. By using conditional knockout mutant mice, we report that neuronal autophagy is particularly(More)
The vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve informs the brain about the linear and angular movements of the head in space and the position of the head with respect to gravity. The termination sites of these eighth nerve afferents define the territory of the vestibular nuclei in the brainstem. (There is also a subset of afferents that project directly(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized pathologically by the formation of ubiquitin and α-synuclein (α-syn)-containing inclusions (Lewy bodies), dystrophic dopamine (DA) terminals, and degeneration of midbrain DA neurons. The precise molecular mechanisms underlying these pathological features remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has implicated(More)
In MDCK cells, presenilin-1 (PS1) accumulates at intercellular contacts where it colocalizes with components of the cadherin-based adherens junctions. PS1 fragments form complexes with E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and alpha-catenin, all components of adherens junctions. In confluent MDCK cells, PS1 forms complexes with cell surface E-cadherin; disruption of(More)
Although gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are known to be present in the vestibular sensory epithelia of a variety of species, the functional relationship between these two transmitters is not clear. The present study addresses the three-dimensional spatial distribution of GABA and glutamate immunoreactivity in the vestibular labyrinth of the(More)
The purpose of the present study was to visualize the synaptic interactions of GABAergic neurons involved in the mediation of velocity storage. In the previous report, ultrastructural studies of degenerating neurons were conducted following midline section of rostral medullary commissural fibers with subsequent behavioral testing. The midline lesion caused(More)
While the basic pathways mediating vestibulo-ocular, -spinal, and -collic reflexes have been described in detail, little is known about vestibular projections to central autonomic sites. Previous studies have primarily focused on projections from the caudal vestibular region to solitary, vagal and parabrachial nuclei, but have noted a sparse innervation of(More)
The cellular and subcellular localization of L-citrulline was analyzed in the adult rat brain and compared with that of traditional markers for the presence of nitric oxide synthase. Light, transmission electron, and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study tissue sections processed for immunocytochemistry employing a monoclonal antibody(More)
The vestibular semicircular canals respond to angular acceleration that is integrated to angular velocity by the biofluid mechanics of the canals and is the primary origin of afferent responses encoding velocity. Surprisingly, some afferents actually report angular acceleration. Our data indicate that hair-cell/afferent synapses introduce a mathematical(More)
The vestibular system sends projections to brainstem autonomic nuclei that modulate heart rate and blood pressure in response to changes in head and body position with regard to gravity. Consistent with this, binaural sinusoidally modulated galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) in humans causes vasoconstriction in the legs, while low frequency (0.02-0.04(More)