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Exceptional braincase preservation in some Devonian placoderm fishes permits interpretation of muscles and cranial nerves controlling eye movement. Placoderms are the only jawed vertebrates with anterior/posterior obliques as in the jawless lamprey, but with the same function as the superior/inferior obliques of other gnathostomes. Evidence of up to seven(More)
Twenty-seven left hemiplegics were divided into three groups of nine, matched for age, education, degree of left neglect, and time since onset of stroke. Subjects were pretested and, following the training, posttested on the WAIS Performance subtests, the WRAT Reading subtest, a letter cancellation task, an address-copying task, and a face-counting task.(More)
The transition from fishes to tetrapods was one of the most dramatic events in the evolution of vertebrates, but many pivotal fossils are incomplete, resulting in gaps in the data that are used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Here we present new observations from the most complete, acid-prepared Devonian tetrapodomorph fish yet discovered, Gogonasus, which(More)
Most living vertebrates, from teleosts to tetrapods, are osteichthyans (bony fishes), but the origin of this major group is poorly understood. The actinopterygians (ray-finned bony fishes) are the most successful living vertebrates in terms of diversity. They appear in the fossil record in the Late Silurian but are poorly known before the Late Devonian.(More)
Reproduction in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) involves either external or internal fertilization. It is commonly argued that internal fertilization can evolve from external, but not the reverse. Male copulatory claspers are present in certain placoderms, fossil jawed vertebrates retrieved as a paraphyletic segment of the gnathostome stem group in recent(More)
The extinct placoderm fishes were the dominant group of vertebrates throughout the Middle Palaeozoic era, yet controversy about their relationships within the gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) is partly due to different interpretations of their reproductive biology. Here we document the oldest record of a live-bearing vertebrate in a new ptyctodontid(More)
The transition from jawless to jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) resulted in the reconfiguration of the muscles and skeleton of the head, including the creation of a separate shoulder girdle with distinct neck muscles. We describe here the only known examples of preserved musculature from placoderms (extinct armored fishes), the phylogenetically most basal(More)
The structure of two small ossified optic capsules from mid-Palaeozoic placoderm fishes has been revealed in fine detail, by the use of X-ray microtomography analysis and 3D visualisation software. These two specimens are 410 million-year-old; they were collected from an Early Devonian (Lochkovian) limestone in central New South Wales, and are the oldest(More)