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The origin and maintenance of eusociality is a central problem in evolutionary biology. Eusocial groups contain individuals that forfeit their own reproduction in order to help others reproduce. In facultatively eusocial taxa, offspring can choose whether to found new nests or become helpers in their natal groups. In many facultatively eusocial insects,(More)
Recent explanations for the evolution of eusociality, focusing more on costs and benefits than relatedness, are largely untested. We validate one such model by showing that helpers in foundress groups of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus benefit from an insurance-based mechanism known as Assured Fitness Returns (AFRs). Experimental helper removals left(More)
We explore the effects of group size on the direct reproductive success of subordinate helpers in eusocial animals where only a single, dominant individual reproduces at one time. Helpers can reproduce directly if they inherit dominance, but when dominance is age based, an individual born into a larger group has a longer wait to inherit. We show that this(More)
BACKGROUND A previous dose-escalation trial of the vascular disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) given before carboplatin, paclitaxel, or both showed responses in 7 of 18 patients with relapsed ovarian cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with ovarian cancer that had relapsed and who could start trial therapy within 6 months of their last(More)
In facultatively eusocial hover wasps, some females leave their natal nests while others choose to stay and become helpers. We tested whether the decisions of 126 newly emerged females to stay or leave depended on group size: the number of females already resident on their natal nests. We predicted that females would be less likely to stay in larger groups,(More)
Sexual size dimorphism, in which one sex is larger than the other, occurs when body size has differential effects on the fitness of males and females. Mammals and birds usually have male-biased size dimorphism, probably because of strong sexual competition among males. Invertebrates usually have female-biased size dimorphism, perhaps because their(More)
PURPOSE A definition for progression of ovarian cancer has been proposed based on either a confirmed doubling of CA-125 levels from the upper limit of normal or from the nadir level if levels are persistently elevated. Retrospectively, we determined whether the use of this CA-125 definition in a randomized trial would have shown the same magnitude of(More)
BACKGROUND The vascular disrupting agent combretastatin A4 phosphate (CA4P) causes major regression of animal tumours when given as combination therapy. METHODS Patients with advanced cancer refractory to standard therapy were treated with CA4P as a 10-min infusion, 20 h before carboplatin, paclitaxel, or paclitaxel, followed by carboplatin. RESULTS(More)
5502 Background: CA4P is a vascular disrupting agent that in pre-clinical models can increase the efficacy of a variety of therapies. A dose escalation trial of CA4P given prior to carboplatin, paclitaxel or both showed the combination was well tolerated and responses were seen in several tumor types including 6/17 with relapsed ovarian cancer. The trial(More)
The diverse selection pressures driving the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) have long been debated. Whilst the balance between fecundity selection and sexual selection has received much attention, explanations based on sex-specific ecology have proven harder to test. In ectotherms, females are typically larger than males, and this is frequently(More)