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Chiari anomalies in the human right atrium ostensibly are encountered rarely. There is only sporadic mention in the literature of these fenestrated, net-like valves of the inferior vena cava, coronary sinus, or various strands connecting these with other right atrial structures. The effects of such structural anomalies on heart function are unknown. We(More)
OBJECTIVE A multitude of female congenital anomalies are uncommon. However, their impact on reproduction can be profound. The aim of this review is to remind the practicing physician of the clinically relevant embryology and summarize the studies that look at the impact of such various anomalies on a woman's fecundity. We review particular surgical(More)
BACKGROUND The axillary nerve is out of the field of view during shoulder arthroscopy, but certain procedures require manipulation of capsular tissue that can threaten the function or integrity of the nerve. We studied fresh cadavers to identify the course of the axillary nerve in relation to the glenoid rim from an intra-articular perspective and to(More)
It has been proposed in the literature that Schiffs reagent reacts with aldehydes to form one of the following types of compounds: alkylsulfonic acids, N-sulfinic acid derivatives, or Schiff bases. Model compounds whose structures are consistent with those proposed in the literature have been synthesized and subjected to infrared analysis. Also, actual(More)
Morphological variations of the thyroid gland are common and generally occur superior to the gland, reflecting its developmental origin. In this report we describe an accessory lobe located inferior to both lateral lobes and the isthmus. The accessory lobe was supplied by a branch of the right inferior thyroid artery and its vein drained via the plexus(More)
In phase partition fixation tissue is immersed in an organic solvent at equilibrium with an aqueous phase containing a fixing agent. By using radioisotope labeling techniques the effects of phase partition fixation on protein retention during fixation of tissue with formalin and glutaraldehyde have been determined and compared with those of standard aqueous(More)
Bilateral ganglionic masses, likely representing fused superior and middle cervical sympathetic ganglia, were found in the mid-neck region of a cadaver during routine dissection. The displacement of the superior cervical ganglion from its normal location is a striking anomaly that does not appear to have been reported earlier. This observation may be(More)
An apparatus for measuring volumes of small objects such as tissue blocks is described. The apparatus measures volumes by fluid displacement and consists of a micropipette adapted to fit the month of an Erlenmeyer flask, a Luer adaptor fused to the side of the flask, and a glass syringe. When assembled with fluid enclosed, the fluid rises to a low level in(More)
OBJECT This study seeks to improve the accuracy of trigeminal nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) radiofrequency lesioning by quantifying the size and orientation of the nucleus caudalis. METHODS Using serial axial photographs of 6 formalin-fixed cadaver brainstems, digital nucleus caudalis measurements were taken at 1-mm intervals from the(More)
In phase-partition fixation, tissue is immersed in a non-aqueous solvent at equilibrium with an aqueous solution of a fixing agent to minimize osmotic effects. Preservation of morphology afforded by phase-partition fixation using formalin and glutaraldehyde and several organic solvents was compared to aqueous 10% neutral buffered formalin fixation for five(More)