Documented cases of convergent molecular evolution due to selection are fairly unusual, and examples to date have involved only a few amino acid positions. However, because convergence mimics shared ancestry and is not accommodated by current phylogenetic methods, it can strongly mislead phylogenetic inference when it does occur. Here, we present a case of… (More)
The rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution has been carefully calibrated only in primates. Similarity between the primate calibration and rates estimated for other vertebrates has led to widespread assumption of a constant molecular clock in vertebrates even though this has never been rigorously tested. We report here the examination of mtDNA sequence… (More)
Abstract The interface of protein structural biology, protein biophysics, molecular evolution, and molecular population genetics forms the foundations for a mechanistic understanding of many aspects of protein biochemistry. Current efforts in interdisciplinary protein modeling are in their infancy and the state-of-the art of such models is described. Beyond… (More)
Analyses of both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences derived from all 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes (12,234 bp) of 19 metazoan species, including that of the lancelet Branchiostoma floridae ("amphioxus"), fail to yield the widely accepted phylogeny for chordates and, within chordates, for vertebrates. Given the breadth and the compelling… (More)
A double-blind cross-over trial of depot flupenthixol in recurrent manic depressive psychosis was carried out. All patients continued on lithium. Eleven patients completed the two-year trial. Flupenthixol appeared to have no prophylactic effect.
Methylene blue, 15 mg/day, was compared with placebo in treatment of severe depressive illness. The 3-week trial was designed to avoid bias by placebo response and also to avoid observer bias. Improvement in patients receiving methylene blue was significantly greater than in those receiving placebo. Methylene blue at a dose of 15 mg/day appears to be a… (More)
A 2-year prophylactic trial was carried out in 31 bipolar manic-depressive subjects, comparing 300 mg/day methylene blue on a double-blind crossover basis with 15 mg/day. All patients were also maintained on lithium. Seventeen patients completed the 2-year trial. During the year the patients were treated with methylene blue at 300 mg/day, they were… (More)