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Genitourinary syndrome of menopause, a new term for a condition more renowned as atrophic vaginitis, is a hypoestrogenic condition with external genital, urological, and sexual implications that affects >50% of postmenopausal women. Due to sexual embarrassment and the sensitive nature of discussing symptoms, genitourinary syndrome of menopause is greatly(More)
INTRODUCTION Pneumoscrotum is a critical, physical finding that may indicate significant morbidity and mortality. Accumulation of gas in the scrotum can be primary or secondary. OBJECTIVE This paper discusses rapid diagnosis and treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS PubMed searches for pneumoscrotum, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. RESULTS We(More)
Diabetes mellitus, when producing hyperglycemia, as well as angiopathic, vasculopathic, and neuropathic complications, poses a threat to the function and viability of sexual arousal and intercourse at similar and different levels in males and females. Males are faced with hypogonadism, depression and anxiety, affecting their sexual arousal desire. Male(More)
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common genitourinary complications in men over 50 years of age and typically presents with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Classes of medications include α1-adrenoceptor blockers, 5α-reductase inhibitors, and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Today, α1-adrenoceptor blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors(More)
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled or long-term diabetes mellitus is conducive to vascular and oxidative stress disturbances that impede several physiological systems, which may in turn elicit psychological symptoms. OBJECTIVE We assess the sexual and hormonal complications of diabetes mellitus that impair reproductive function in males and females. METHOD A(More)
Testicular compartment syndrome (TCS) refers to the impairment of microcirculation in the testicle due to either increased venous resistance or extraluminal compression, which leads to hypoxia. TCS releases oxidants through hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management of TCS are reviewed. Based on(More)
Proteomics is a large-scale study of proteins. Several technologies are used to isolate and identify proteins of various spectra, which is useful in differentiating complexity of proteins. Critical role of proteomics can be applied to the field of urology, as a means of noninvasive biomarkers to diagnose patients with benign and malignant nephro-urological(More)
INTRODUCTION A hydrocele is defined as the pathological buildup of serous fluid in the pelvis and groin due to various etiologies such as diseases or trauma. It has distinct clinical manifestations, particularly discomfort and psychosocial distress. Understanding the anatomy, embryology, and physiology associated with hydrocele formation is crucial to(More)
INTRODUCTION Appendicitis is a prevailing cause of acute abdomen, but is often difficult to diagnose due to its wide range of symptoms, anatomical variations, and developmental abnormalities. Urological disorders of the genitourinary tract may be closely related to appendicitis due to the close proximity of the appendix to the genitourinary tract. This(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of(More)