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In Tanzania, the coverage of four or more antenatal care (ANC 4) visits among pregnant women has declined over time. We conducted an exploratory analysis to identify factors associated with utilization of ANC 4 and ANC 4 decline among pregnant women over time. We used data from 8035 women who delivered within two years preceding Tanzania Demographic and(More)
We present data from an exploratory case study characterising the social capital in three case villages situated in areas of varying HIV prevalence in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews revealed a range of experiences by community members, leaders of organisations and social groups. We found that the(More)
The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and(More)
BACKGROUND Kagera is one of the 22 regions of Tanzania mainland, which has witnessed a decline in HIV prevalence during the past two decades; decreasing from 24% in 1987 to 4.7 in 2009 in the urban district of Bukoba. Access to social capital, both structural and cognitive, might have played a role in this development. The aim was to examine the association(More)
BACKGROUND During the 1990s, the government of Tanzania introduced the decentralization by devolution (D by D) approach involving the transfer of functions, power and authority from the centre to the local government authorities (LGAs) to improve the delivery of public goods and services, including health services. OBJECTIVE This article examines and(More)
Tanzania introduced the decentralisation of its health systems in the 1990s in order to provide opportunities for community participation in health planning. Health facility governing committees (HFGCs) were then established to provide room for communities to participate in the management of health service delivery. The objective of this study was to(More)
Tanzania is experiencing a serious Human Resource for Health (HRH) crisis. Shortages are 87.5% and 67% in private and public hospitals, respectively. Mal-distribution and brain drain compound the shortage. The objective of this study was to improve knowledge on the HRH status in Tanzania by analyzing what happens to the number of medical doctors (MD) and(More)
Background The International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) is a legal instrument binding all World Health Organization (WHO) member States. It aims to prevent and control public health emergencies of international concern. Country points of entry (POEs) have been identified as potential areas for effective interventions to prevent the transmission of(More)
Antenatal care (ANC) remains an important contact point on the continuum of care for mothers and children in low- and middle-income countries. In Tanzania, the proportion of pregnant women completing at least four ANC visits (ANC-4) dropped from 70% to 43% between 1999 and 2010. To identify potential causes of the decline in the number of ANC visits, we(More)
BACKGROUND Decentralised health systems in Tanzania depend largely on funding from the central government to run health services. Experience has shown that central funding in a decentralised system is not an appropriate approach to ensure the effective and efficient performance of local authorities due to several limitations. One of the limitations is that(More)