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Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover are both heritable. Although bone turnover affects bone mass, it is not clear whether these parameters are under common genetic or environmental control. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the determination of an index of bone turnover, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), and(More)
The contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the association among bone mineral density (BMD), lean mass, and fat mass were assessed in the Sydney Twin Study of Osteoporosis (Australia), 1995-1996, in 57 monozygotic and 55 dizygotic female twin pairs of Caucasian background, aged 52.8 (standard deviation, 13) years. In multiple regression(More)
Common vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene alleles have recently been shown to contribute to the genetic variability in bone mass and bone turnover, however, the physiological mechanisms involved are unknown. To examine this, the response to 7 days of 2 micrograms oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25-(OH)2D] (calcitriol) stimulation was assessed in 21 premenopausal(More)
This study was designed to assess the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation and covariation of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements and their relationships to bone mineral density (BMD). Forty-nine monozygotic (MZ) and 44 dizygotic (DZ) female twins between 20 and 83 years of age (53 +/- 13 years, mean +/- SD)(More)
Calcaneal ultrasound has been increasingly studied for its potential in the assessment of osteoporotic fracture risk. The accuracy of such an assessment is, in part, dependent on the reproducibility of the measurement. This study examines the impact of handedness on ultrasound measurements [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS)](More)
The cloning of the murine obese (ob) gene and its human homologue has recently been reported. Mutations in the mouse ob gene result in hereditary obesity; however, the role of variations of OB in the regulation of bodyweight in humans has yet to be determined. The contribution of putative genetic variations in the human OB gene to total and regional fat(More)
Could focused population screening detect osteoporosis earlier and improve the management of this major health care problem? Quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus is currently being proposed as a suitable screening technique. Correlations between quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry of bone mineral density of the(More)
Obesity, insulin resistance and disturbed glucose metabolism cluster within the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS). Whether this reflects shared genetic or environmental factors detectable in 'normal' populations (not selected for IRS features) is unknown. This study estimated (i) genetic influences on IRS traits and (ii) shared and specific genetic and(More)