Gary W. Kraemer

Learn More
Early experiences exert their effects on adult parental behavior in part by altering the development of neurobiological mechanisms that initiate or support the initiation and sustenance of adult parental behavior. The effects of parental behavior on sensory, perceptual and emotional mechanisms in offspring constitute an experientially based mechanism by(More)
The optimal coordination between the new mammalian mother and her young involves a sequence of behaviors on the part of each that ensures that the young will be adequately cared for and show healthy physical, emotional, and social development. This coordination is accomplished by each member of the relationship having the appropriate sensitivities and(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical value of an fMRI task activating the amygdala in controls and patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). METHODS A fearful face fMRI paradigm using video sequences was developed and investigated in 17 patients with epilepsy (12 had MTLE [6 right- and 6 left-sided]) and 17 healthy control subjects.(More)
BACKGROUND To study genetic and environmental contributions to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine concentrations, 55 young rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were reared apart from their 10 fathers to perform a paternal half-sibling analysis. METHODS To study maternal genetic contributions, 23 infants were reared with their mothers, 23 infants were removed(More)
This article describes a neurobiological basis for the "first attachment" of the primate infant to its caretaker. The infant normally internalizes a neurobiological "image" of the behavioral and emotional characteristics of its caregiver that later regulates important features of its brain function. Current models of sensorimotor analysis and its relation(More)
Among a sample of 43 women with epilepsy treated for at least 2 years with valproate (n=22) or other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (n=21), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was diagnosed in three women, two of them were treated with valproate. Although the rate of PCOS and of menstrual disturbances, weight body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio as well as(More)
While it has been established that the weight of the female rhesus monkey brain is less than that of the male, the sexual dimorphism of specific brain structures has not been well-documented. To further understand potential sex differences, we measured the whole brain volume and the size of the corpus callosum (mid-sagittal) and amygdala (largest coronal(More)
BACKGROUND It has been hypothesized that adverse early experience may be a mechanism by which children become vulnerable to later psychopathology via alteration of neurochemical or hormonal systems associated with such disorders. Such effects may in turn affect later responses to pharmacologic agents that act on these systems. METHODS In this study, 18(More)
The mechanisms by which childhood abuse and/or neglect become risk factors for the development of drug addiction, problem gambling, and other disorders of behavioral inhibition are unknown. The loss of behavioral inhibition is often triggered by reward-related cues that acquire incentive salience. This study examined whether inadequate early-life social(More)
The question of whether psychosocial stress during pregnancy (alone or in combination with fetal alcohol exposure) has negative consequences for offspring has not been clearly established in human studies. In this article, we present an overview of three prospective longitudinal studies. Using rhesus monkeys as subjects, a noise or hormone stressor, alone(More)