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Sarcoidosis may be affected by sex, race, and age. A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS) enrolled 736 patients with sarcoidosis within 6 mo of diagnosis from 10 clinical centers in the United States. Using the ACCESS sarcoidosis assessment system, we determined organ involvement for the whole group and for subgroups differentiated by sex,(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important second messengers generated in response to many types of environmental stress. In this setting, changes in intracellular ROS can activate signal transduction pathways that influence how cells react to their environment. In sepsis, a dynamic proinflammatory cellular response to bacterial toxins (e.g.(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rapidly progressive illness of unknown cause characterized by sequential acute lung injury with subsequent scarring and end-stage lung disease. Treatment at present remains largely supportive, with evidence that patients' satisfaction and survival may be improved by referral to centers specializing in the evaluation of(More)
We have developed an objective, reproducible, and automated means for the regional evaluation of the pulmonary parenchyma from computed tomography (CT) scans. This method, known as the Adaptive Multiple Feature Method (AMFM) assesses as many as 22 independent texture features in order to classify a tissue pattern. In this study, the six tissue patterns(More)
Using the monoclonal antibodies OKT4 and OKT8, we determined the proportions of helper and suppressor T cells in patients with sarcoidosis and high-intensity alveolitis, patients with sarcoidosis and low-intensity alveolitis, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and normal controls. In controls and patients with IPF, the ratio of helper to(More)
Exposure to the chemotherapeutic drug bleomycin leads to pulmonary fibrosis in humans and has been widely used in animal models of the disease. Using C57BL/6 bleomycin-sensitive mice, pulmonary fibrosis was induced by multiple intraperitoneal injections of the drug. An increase in the relative amounts of steady-state alpha1(I) procollagen, alpha1(III)(More)
Airway epithelial cells are unresponsive to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) exposure under normal conditions. This study demonstrates that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection results in increased sensitivity to this environmental exposure. Infection with RSV results in increased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mRNA, protein, and(More)
Our previous work demonstrated that hypoxia decreases transcription of the human prostaglandin H synthase-2 (PGHS-2) gene during exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), resulting in decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis (J. Biol. Chem. 269:32979-32984, 1994). Because PGE2 is reported to inhibit interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), it is(More)
Activated T-lymphocytes play a central role in the alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis by recruiting monocytes, the building blocks of granulomata, to the alveolar structures. The present study suggests that the lung mononuclear phagocyte population, which is derived from blood monocytes, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis by(More)