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A model is proposed in which stimulation of cortical cytoplasm occurs near the distal ends of astral rays. Levels of stimulation sufficient to cause furrowing occur only in equatorial zones between asters. The model can account for positioning of furrows in very large cells (fertilized eggs of amphibians, birds, and fish) and in cells with several mitotic(More)
PURPOSE Treatment of de-epithelialized human corneas with riboflavin (RF) + long-wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA; RFUVA) increases corneal stroma tensile strength significantly. RFUVA treatment retards the progression of keratoconus, perhaps by cross-linking of collagen molecules, but exact molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Research described here(More)
PURPOSE Corneal cross-linking (CXL) is a treatment for keratoconus that eliminates the need for keratoplasty in most patients. However, its molecular mechanisms remain under study. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have been suggested by many studies as the causative strengthening agent during CXL, though no studies to date have directly tested this(More)
PURPOSE Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in(More)
Corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) from scar tissue of experimental penetrating corneal wounds in rabbits was analyzed 2-8 weeks after injury using three previously characterized antibodies. Keratan sulfate (KS) was identified in 2 week scars and normal corneal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody against sulfated KS(More)
PURPOSE Extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to play a crucial role in corneal degradation associated with the pathological progression of keratoconus. Currently, corneal cross-linking by riboflavin and ultraviolet A (RFUVA) has received significant attention for treatment of keratoconus. However, the extent to which MMPs digest(More)
PURPOSE Embryonic chick nerves encircle the cornea in pericorneal tissue until embryonic day (E)9, then penetrate the anterior corneal stroma, invade the epithelium, and branch over the corneal surface through E20. Adult corneal nerves, cut during transplantation or LASIK, never fully regenerate. Schwann cells (SCs) protect nerve fibers and augment nerve(More)
PURPOSE Keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) of the cornea exhibit a characteristic change in glycosylation resulting from stromal inflammation and scarring. To examine potential roles for these molecules in the pathobiology of the cornea, the authors investigated interaction of inflammatory macrophages with KSPGs in vitro. METHODS Attachment and(More)
Monoclonal antibody against keratan sulfate (KS) was used for immunofluorescent staining of sections of human corneas from 8 normal eyes, 19 with keratoconus, 4 with pellucid marginal degeneration, 5 with primary macular corneal dystrophy, and 1 with recurrent macular corneal dystrophy. The anti-KS monoclonal antibody did not stain the corneas with primary(More)
PURPOSE To identify and quantify changes in keratan sulfate (KS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) sulfated disaccharides in the developing chick cornea using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). METHODS Cryostat sections of fresh nonfixed corneas were obtained from White Leghorn embryonic day (E)8 to E20 chicks, and from(More)