Gary Van Nest

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A high incidence of community-acquired hepatitis C virus infection that can lead to the progressive development of chronic active hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma occurs throughout the world. A vaccine to control the spread of this agent that represents a major cause of chronic liver disease is therefore needed. Seven(More)
The RNA genome of human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was molecularly cloned. Recombinant DNA clones representing the entire HAV RNA were used to determine the primary structure of the viral genome. The length of the viral genome is 7478 nucleotides. An open reading frame starting at nucleotide 734 and terminating at nucleotide 7415 encodes a polyprotein of Mr(More)
Recent reports have identified two major classes of CpG motif-containing oligodeoxynucleotide immunostimulatory sequences (ISS): uniformly modified phosphorothioate (PS) oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs), which initiate B cell functions but poorly activate dendritic cells (DCs) to make interferon (IFN)-alpha, and chimeric PS/phosphodiester (PO) ODNs(More)
Vaccine adjuvants help antigens elicit rapid, potent, and long-lasting immune responses. The lack of understanding of the immunological mechanism of action of adjuvants has limited the rational development of vaccines for human use. In particular, little is known about how the immune system processes adjuvants. The goal of the present study was to determine(More)
Immunostimulatory sequences (ISS) that contain CpG motifs have been demonstrated to exert antipathogen and antitumour immunity in animal models through several mechanisms, including the activation of natural killer (NK) cells to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and to exert lytic activity. Since NK cells lack the ISS receptor TLR9, the exact pathway by(More)
The gene for glycoprotein gB1 of herpes simplex virus type 1 strain Patton was expressed in stable Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Expression vectors containing the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) cDNA plus the complete gB1 gene or a truncated gene lacking the 194 carboxyl-terminal amino acids of gB1 were transfected into CHO DHFR-deficient cells.(More)
MF59 is a safe, practical, and potent adjuvant for use with human vaccines. The formulation is easily manufactured, may be sterilized by filtration, and is both compatible and efficacious with all antigens tested to date. MF59 has been shown to be a potent stimulator of cellular and humoral responses to subunit antigens in both animal models and clinical(More)
BACKGROUND Allergen immunotherapy is inconvenient and associated with the risk of anaphylaxis. Efforts to improve the safety of immunotherapy by means of chemical modification of allergens have not been successful because it greatly reduced their antigenicity. Recently, immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS or CpG motifs) have been shown to act as strong(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of molecules that function as sensors for the detection of foreign pathogens through the recognition of nonvariable microbial motifs. Although numerous studies have focused on singular TLRs, less attention has been focused on how simultaneous signaling of multiple TLRs may result in counter-regulation of the effects(More)
Vaccines produced by recombinant DNA technology are safer than 'traditional' vaccines but they are often poorly immunogenic, requiring adjuvants to enhance their immunogenicity. Particulate adjuvants of defined dimensions (< 5 microns) have been shown to be effective in enhancing the immunogenicity of 'weak' antigens in animal models. Two novel adjuvants(More)