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Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two main types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, are multifactorial conditions of unknown aetiology. A susceptibility locus for Crohn's disease has been mapped to chromosome 16. Here we have used a positional-cloning strategy, based on linkage analysis followed by linkage disequilibrium mapping, to identify(More)
Furin catalyses a simple biochemical reaction--the proteolytic maturation of proprotein substrates in the secretory pathway. But the simplicity of this reaction belies furin's broad and important roles in homeostasis, as well as in diseases ranging from Alzheimer's disease and cancer to anthrax and Ebola fever. This review summarizes various features of(More)
Cell proliferation requires cell growth; that is, cells only divide after they reach a critical size. However, the mechanisms by which cells grow and maintain their appropriate size have remained elusive. Drosophila deficient in the S6 kinase gene (dS6K) exhibited an extreme delay in development and a severe reduction in body size. These flies had smaller(More)
Activation of the protein p70s6k by mitogens leads to increased translation of a family of messenger RNAs that encode essential components of the protein synthetic apparatus. Activation of the kinase requires hierarchical phosphorylation at multiple sites, culminating in the phosphorylation of the threonine in position 229 (Thr229), in the catalytic domain.(More)
The highly homologous 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinases (S6K1 and S6K2) play a key role in the regulation of cell growth by controlling the biosynthesis of translational components which make up the protein synthetic apparatus, most notably ribosomal proteins. In the case of S6K1, at least eight phosphorylation sites are believed to mediate kinase activation(More)
Recent studies have shown that the p70(s6k)/p85(s6k) signaling pathway plays a critical role in cell growth by modulating the translation of a family of mRNAs termed 5'TOPs, which encode components of the protein synthetic apparatus. Here we demonstrate that homozygous disruption of the p70(s6k)/p85(s6k) gene does not affect viability or fertility of mice,(More)
Allelic deletions involving chromosome 18q occur in more than 70 percent of colorectal cancers. Such deletions are thought to signal the existence of a tumor suppressor gene in the affected region, but until now a candidate suppressor gene on this chromosomal arm had not been identified. A contiguous stretch of DNA comprising 370 kilobase pairs (kb) has now(More)
The bacterial macrolide rapamycin is an efficacious anticancer agent against solid tumors. In a hypoxic environment, the increase in mass of solid tumors is dependent on the recruitment of mitogens and nutrients. When nutrient concentrations change, particularly those of essential amino acids, the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) functions in regulatory(More)
The HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) enables HIV-1 to escape immune surveillance. However, the cellular pathway used by Nef to downregulate MHC-I is unknown. Here, we show that Nef and PACS-1 combine to usurp the ARF6 endocytic pathway by a PI3K-dependent process and downregulate cell surface(More)