Gary Thomas Ray

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OBJECTIVE Data on the current costs of medical services for children with autism spectrum disorders are lacking. Our purpose for this study was to compare health care utilization and costs of children with and without autism spectrum disorders in the same health plan. PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants included all 2- to 18-year-old children with autism(More)
BACKGROUND Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been in routine use in the United States for 5 years. Prior U.S. cost-effectiveness analyses have not taken into account the effect of the vaccine on nonvaccinated persons. METHODS We revised a previously published model to simulate the effects of PCV on children vaccinated between 2000 and 2004, and to(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the costs and benefits of two new agents, respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin (RSVIG) and palivizumab, to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among premature infants discharged from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) before the start of the RSV season. Method. Decision analysis was used to compare the(More)
CONTEXT Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for infants has recently been found effective against meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, and otitis media. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the projected health and economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination of healthy US infants and young children. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis based on data from the Northern(More)
BACKGROUND Given the limited literature, we conducted a study to examine the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) among newly diagnosed cancer patients. METHODS We identified adult health plan members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California diagnosed with invasive cancer from 2001 to 2005. Electronic health records with inpatient and outpatient diagnoses,(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the excess costs of medical care for patients with diabetes in a managed care population and to determine the proportion of costs spent on treating the complications of diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A comparison of 1-year (1994) costs of medical care in the 85,209 members of the diabetes registry of Kaiser Permanente,(More)
BACKGROUND Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are commonly occurring infections with wide-ranging clinical manifestations, from mild to life-threatening. There are few population-based studies of SSTIs in the period after the rapid increase in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We used electronic databases to(More)
Infections due to Staphylococcus aureus present a significant health problem in the United States. Between 1990 and 2005, there was a dramatic increase in community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), but recent reports suggest that MRSA may be declining. We retrospectively identified S. aureus isolates (n = 133,450) that were obtained from(More)
PURPOSE We describe an uncircumcised male infant and a female neonate treated for infant urinary tract infection who had multiple hormonal and electrolyte abnormalities consistent with the diagnosis of transient pseudohypoaldosteronism. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed these 2 cases. RESULTS In each case successful treatment of infant(More)
PURPOSE To identify factors associated with early treatment discontinuation of three agents commonly prescribed for women with low bone density. METHODS A telephone survey was conducted in 2000 to 2001 in a random sample of women aged 45 years or older who had bone density T-scores -1.0 or lower and who had initiated treatment with hormone replacement(More)