Gary Thomas Ray

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The burden of disease due to S. pneumoniae (pneumococcus), particularly pneumonia, remains high despite the widespread use of vaccines. Drug resistant strains complicate clinical treatment and may increase costs. We estimated the annual burden and incremental costs attributable to antibiotic resistance in pneumococcal pneumonia. We derived estimates of(More)
OBJECTIVE We report trends in long-term opioid use among patients with a history of depression from two large health plans. METHODS Using claims data, age- and gender-adjusted rates for long-term (>90 days) opioid use episodes were calculated for 1997-2005, comparing those with and without a depression diagnosis in the prior 2 years. Opioid use(More)
BACKGROUND Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are commonly occurring infections with wide-ranging clinical manifestations, from mild to life-threatening. There are few population-based studies of SSTIs in the period after the rapid increase in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA). METHODS We used electronic databases to(More)
Long-term opioid therapy for non-cancer pain has increased. Caution is advised in prescribing for persons with substance use disorders, but little is known about actual health plan practices. This paper reports trends and characteristics of long-term opioid use in persons with non-cancer pain and a substance abuse history. Using health plan data(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza vaccination recently has been recommended for children 6-23 months old, but is not currently recommended for routine use in non-high-risk older children. Information on disease impact, costs, benefits, risks, and community preferences could help guide decisions about which age and risk groups should be vaccinated and strategies for(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between use of psychiatric services and alcohol and drug treatment outcomes five years after such treatment. It was anticipated that receipt of psychiatric services would predict long-term abstinence. METHODS A sample of 604 outpatients from a managed care organization's chemical(More)
A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related(More)
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