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Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale(More)
Legumes and many nonleguminous plants enter symbiotic interactions with microbes, and it is poorly understood how host plants respond to promote beneficial, symbiotic microbial interactions while suppressing those that are deleterious or pathogenic. Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate target transcripts and are characterized by siRNAs spaced(More)
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a major crop providing an important source of protein and oil, which can also be converted into biodiesel. A major milestone in soybean research was the recent sequencing of its genome. The sequence predicts 69,145 putative soybean genes, with 46,430 predicted with high confidence. In order to examine the expression of these(More)
Chitin, a polymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, is found in fungal cell walls but not in plants. Plant cells can perceive chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) leading to gene induction and defense responses. We identified a LysM receptor-like protein (LysM RLK1) required for chitin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The mutation in this gene blocked the(More)
Chitin, found in the cell walls of true fungi and the exoskeleton of insects and nematodes, is a well-established elicitor of plant defense responses. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor (TF) and ubiquitin-ligase genes in response to purified chitooctaose at different treatment times (15, 30, 60,(More)
Extracellular ATP (eATP) in animals is well documented and known to play an important role in cellular signaling (e.g. at the nerve synapse). The existence of eATP has been postulated in plants; however, there is no definitive experimental evidence for its presence or an explanation as to how such a polar molecule could exit the plant cell and what(More)
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is an essential signaling molecule that is perceived in mammals by plasma membrane P2-type purinoceptors. Similar ATP receptors do not exist in plants, although extracellular ATP has been shown to play critical roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. Here, we identify an ATP-insensitive(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana AtOPT3 belongs to the oligopeptide transporter (OPT) family, a relatively poorly characterized family of peptide/modified peptide transporters found in archebacteria, bacteria, fungi, and plants. A null mutation in AtOPT3 resulted in embryo lethality, indicating an essential role for AtOPT3 in embryo development. In this article, we(More)
Chitin is a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern recognized in Arabidopsis by a lysin motif receptor kinase (LYK), AtCERK1. Previous research suggested that AtCERK1 is the major chitin receptor and mediates chitin-induced signaling through homodimerization and phosphorylation. However, the reported chitin binding affinity of AtCERK1 is quite low,(More)
Nodulation is the result of a mutualistic interaction between legumes and symbiotic soil bacteria (e.g. soybean [Glycine max] and Bradyrhizobium japonicum) initiated by the infection of plant root hair cells by the symbiont. Fewer than 20 plant genes involved in the nodulation process have been functionally characterized. Considering the complexity of the(More)