Gary Schwartz

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Previous studies demonstrated that strain H129 of herpes simplex virus-1 undergoes anterograde transneuronal transport in mice and primates after peripheral or central injection. In this study, H129 was used in rats to identify CNS regions that receive relayed viscero-sensory inputs from the stomach wall. We also examined whether transneuronal viral(More)
This article analyzes how legal presumptions can mediate between costly litigation and ex ante incentives. We augment a moral hazard model with a redistributional litigation game in which a presumption parameterizes how a court ‘‘weighs’’ evidence offered by the opposing sides. Strong prodefendant presumptions foreclose lawsuits altogether, but also(More)
The T allele of the C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding the beta(3)-subunit of G proteins has been associated with increased sodium-hydrogen exchange and low renin in patients with essential hypertension. To assess its association with blood pressure response to diuretic therapy, we measured the C825T polymorphism in 197 blacks (134 men, 63 women) and(More)
BACKGROUND Age and race categories or renin profiling have been recommended to predict blood pressure responses to monotherapy with a beta-blocker or thiazide diuretic. Whether these or other characteristics predict blood pressure responses when the drugs are administered as add-on therapy is uncertain. METHODS We evaluated predictors of blood pressure(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding or influencing renal sodium transport systems were investigated as potential predictors of blood pressure (BP) response to a thiazide diuretic. A sample of 585 adults with essential hypertension (30 to 59.9 years of age; 50% blacks; 47% women) were treated with hydrochlorothiazide for 4 weeks (25 mg(More)
The association between clinical coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and aortic atherosclerosis has not been examined in the general population. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed in 581 subjects, a random sample of the Olmsted County (Minnesota) population aged >/=45 years, participating in the Stroke Prevention: Assessment of(More)
BACKGROUND The ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity (PRA) is considered the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism. Uncertainty exists, however, regarding its diagnostic accuracy and the effects of antihypertensive drugs and dietary sodium balance on test characteristics. METHODS We measured PRA and aldosterone in(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacogenetic discoveries may enable greater individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy. We investigated polymorphisms in the genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Glu298-->Asp), alpha-adducin (Gly460-->Trp), the beta(1)-adrenoceptor (Arg389-->Gly), beta2-adrenoceptor (Arg16-->Gly), and lipoprotein lipase (Ser447-->Stop) for(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to determine the association between patent foramen ovale (PFO), atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), and stroke prospectively in a unselected population sample. BACKGROUND The disputed relationship between PFO and stroke reflects methodologic weaknesses in studies using invalid controls, unblinded transesophageal echocardiography(More)