Learn More
Parkin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase belonging to the RBR (RING-InBetweenRING-RING family), and is involved in the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease. Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, which is one of the most common familial forms of the disease, is directly linked to mutations in the parkin gene. However, the molecular mechanisms of(More)
Missense mutations in park2, encoding the parkin protein, account for approximately 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease (ARJP) cases. Parkin belongs to the family of RBR (RING-between-RING) E3 ligases involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation and trafficking of proteins such as Pael-R and synphillin-1. The proposed architecture of(More)
BACKGROUND Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) are central enzymes involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. During this process, ubiquitin (Ub) and the E2 protein form an unstable E2-Ub thiolester intermediate prior to the transfer of ubiquitin to an E3-ligase protein and the labeling of a substrate for degradation. A series of complex(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a multifunctional protein affecting many cellular processes and has been described to bind microtubules. Defective microtubule-based axonal transport is hypothesized to contribute to Parkinson's disease, but whether LRRK2 mutations affect this(More)
Mutations in Parkin are one of the predominant hereditary factors found in patients suffering from autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. Parkin is a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family that is defined by a tripartite RING1-in-between-ring (IBR)-RING2 motif. In Parkin, the IBR domain has been shown to augment binding of the E2 proteins UbcH7 and(More)
E2 conjugating enzymes form a thiol ester intermediate with ubiquitin, which is subsequently transferred to a substrate protein targeted for degradation. While all E2 proteins comprise a catalytic domain where the thiol ester is formed, several E2s (class II) have C-terminal extensions proposed to control substrate recognition, dimerization, or(More)
S100 proteins are a group of EF-hand calcium-signaling proteins, many of which interact with members of the calcium- and phospholipid-binding annexin family of proteins. This calcium-sensitive interaction enables two neighboring membrane surfaces, complexed to different annexin proteins, to be brought into close proximity for membrane reorganization, using(More)
The dimeric calcium-binding protein S100b is proposed to undergo a calcium-induced structural change allowing it to interact, via a hydrophobic surface, with other proteins. Previously it has been suggested that calcium binding to S100b leads to the exposure of at least one phenylalanine residue (Mani et al., 1982, 1983). This effect appears to be(More)
This paper describes the sequence homology of calcium-binding proteins belonging to the troponin C superfamily. Specifically, this similarity has been examined for 276 twelve-residue calcium-binding loops. It has been found that, in the calcium-binding loop, several residues appear invariant, regardless of the species of origin or the affinity of the(More)
The PARK2 gene is mutated in 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) cases. It encodes parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RBR family. Parkin exists in an autoinhibited state that is activated by phosphorylation of its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and binding of phosphoubiquitin. We describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of human(More)