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RNA interference is mediated by small interfering RNAs produced by members of the ribonuclease III (RNase III) family represented by bacterial RNase III and eukaryotic Rnt1p, Drosha and Dicer. For mechanistic studies, bacterial RNase III has been a valuable model system for the family. Previously, we have shown that RNase III uses two catalytic sites to(More)
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 is a multifunctional protein affecting many cellular processes and has been described to bind microtubules. Defective microtubule-based axonal transport is hypothesized to contribute to Parkinson's disease, but whether LRRK2 mutations affect this(More)
RING E3 ligases are proteins that must selectively recruit an E2-conjugating enzyme and facilitate ubiquitin transfer to a substrate. It is not clear how a RING E3 ligase differentiates a naked E2 enzyme from the E2∼ubiquitin-conjugated form or how this is altered upon ubiquitin transfer. RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1/ROC1) is a key protein found in the(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding connexin-43 (Cx43) cause the human development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). In this study, ODDD-linked Cx43 N-terminal mutants formed nonfunctional gap junction-like plaques and exhibited dominant-negative effects on the coupling conductance of coexpressed endogenous Cx43 in reference cell models.(More)
Following infection of dissociated embryonic day 13 rat medullary raphe cells with a retrovirus encoding the temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag), a neuronal cell line, RN46A, was cloned by serial dilution. At 33 degrees C, RN46A cells express nuclear T-ag immunoreactivity and divide with a doubling time of 9 hr. Undifferentiated(More)
Mutations in the park2 gene, encoding the RING-inBetweenRING-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, cause 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism cases. More than 70 known pathogenic mutations occur throughout parkin, many of which cluster in the inhibitory amino-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and the carboxy-terminal RING2 domain that is indispensable(More)
SUMMARY Escherichia coli HU, a nonsequence-specific histone- and HMG-like DNA-binding protein, was chemically converted into a series of HU-nucleases with an iron-EDTA-based cleavage moiety positioned at 16 rationally selected sites. Specific DNA cleavage patterns from each of these HU-nucleases allowed us to determine the precise localization,(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that develops in individuals with known risk factors that include hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, influenced by diet. However, the interplay between diet, inflammatory mechanisms and vascular risk factors requires further research. We hypothesised that interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling in the vessel wall(More)
The PARK2 gene is mutated in 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) cases. It encodes parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RBR family. Parkin exists in an autoinhibited state that is activated by phosphorylation of its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and binding of phosphoubiquitin. We describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of human(More)
In a dose-response experiment it was shown that intraperitoneal injections of 0.062 mg/kg, and 0.1 mg/kg of the dopamine-receptor blocking agent and neuroleptic spiroperidol severely attenuate self-stimulation in the orbitofrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and in the region of the locus coeruleus, in the rhesus monkey and in the squirrel monkey. In the rhesus(More)