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The S100 proteins comprise at least 25 members, forming the largest group of EF-hand signalling proteins in humans. Although the proteins are expressed in many tissues, each S100 protein has generally been shown to have a preference for expression in one particular tissue or cell type. Three-dimensional structures of several S100 family members have shown(More)
This paper describes the sequence homology of calcium-binding proteins belonging to the troponin C superfamily. Specifically, this similarity has been examined for 276 twelve-residue calcium-binding loops. It has been found that, in the calcium-binding loop, several residues appear invariant, regardless of the species of origin or the affinity of the(More)
Missense mutations in park2, encoding the parkin protein, account for approximately 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease (ARJP) cases. Parkin belongs to the family of RBR (RING-between-RING) E3 ligases involved in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation and trafficking of proteins such as Pael-R and synphillin-1. The proposed architecture of(More)
Parkin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase belonging to the RBR (RING-InBetweenRING-RING family), and is involved in the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease. Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism, which is one of the most common familial forms of the disease, is directly linked to mutations in the parkin gene. However, the molecular mechanisms of(More)
BACKGROUND Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) are central enzymes involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. During this process, ubiquitin (Ub) and the E2 protein form an unstable E2-Ub thiolester intermediate prior to the transfer of ubiquitin to an E3-ligase protein and the labeling of a substrate for degradation. A series of complex(More)
The PARK2 gene is mutated in 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) cases. It encodes parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RBR family. Parkin exists in an autoinhibited state that is activated by phosphorylation of its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and binding of phosphoubiquitin. We describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of human(More)
RING E3 ligases are proteins that must selectively recruit an E2-conjugating enzyme and facilitate ubiquitin transfer to a substrate. It is not clear how a RING E3 ligase differentiates a naked E2 enzyme from the E2∼ubiquitin-conjugated form or how this is altered upon ubiquitin transfer. RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1/ROC1) is a key protein found in the(More)
The dimeric calcium-binding protein S100b is proposed to undergo a calcium-induced structural change allowing it to interact, via a hydrophobic surface, with other proteins. Previously it has been suggested that calcium binding to S100b leads to the exposure of at least one phenylalanine residue (Mani et al., 1982, 1983). This effect appears to be(More)
Mutations in Parkin are one of the predominant hereditary factors found in patients suffering from autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. Parkin is a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family that is defined by a tripartite RING1-in-between-ring (IBR)-RING2 motif. In Parkin, the IBR domain has been shown to augment binding of the E2 proteins UbcH7 and(More)
E2 conjugating enzymes form a thiol ester intermediate with ubiquitin, which is subsequently transferred to a substrate protein targeted for degradation. While all E2 proteins comprise a catalytic domain where the thiol ester is formed, several E2s (class II) have C-terminal extensions proposed to control substrate recognition, dimerization, or(More)