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RING E3 ligases are proteins that must selectively recruit an E2-conjugating enzyme and facilitate ubiquitin transfer to a substrate. It is not clear how a RING E3 ligase differentiates a naked E2 enzyme from the E2∼ubiquitin-conjugated form or how this is altered upon ubiquitin transfer. RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1/ROC1) is a key protein found in the(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding connexin-43 (Cx43) cause the human development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). In this study, ODDD-linked Cx43 N-terminal mutants formed nonfunctional gap junction-like plaques and exhibited dominant-negative effects on the coupling conductance of coexpressed endogenous Cx43 in reference cell models.(More)
Mutations in the park2 gene, encoding the RING-inBetweenRING-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, cause 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism cases. More than 70 known pathogenic mutations occur throughout parkin, many of which cluster in the inhibitory amino-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, and the carboxy-terminal RING2 domain that is indispensable(More)
SUMMARY Escherichia coli HU, a nonsequence-specific histone- and HMG-like DNA-binding protein, was chemically converted into a series of HU-nucleases with an iron-EDTA-based cleavage moiety positioned at 16 rationally selected sites. Specific DNA cleavage patterns from each of these HU-nucleases allowed us to determine the precise localization,(More)
The PARK2 gene is mutated in 50% of autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) cases. It encodes parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the RBR family. Parkin exists in an autoinhibited state that is activated by phosphorylation of its N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain and binding of phosphoubiquitin. We describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of human(More)
Membrane repair is mediated by multiprotein complexes, such as that formed between the dimeric EF-hand protein S100A10, the calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein annexin A2, the enlargeosome protein AHNAK, and members of the transmembrane ferlin family. Although interactions between these proteins have been shown, little is known about their structural(More)
The ubiquitin-signaling pathway utilizes E1 activating, E2 conjugating, and E3 ligase enzymes to sequentially transfer the small modifier protein ubiquitin to a substrate protein. During the last step of this cascade different types of E3 ligases either act as scaffolds to recruit an E2 enzyme and substrate (RING), or form an ubiquitin-thioester(More)
Parkin is a multidomain E3 ligase associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease. The N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (Ubld) of parkin functions with the S5a proteasomal subunit, positioning substrate proteins for degradation. In addition the parkin Ubld recruits the endocytotic protein Eps15, allowing the E3 ligase to ubiquinate Eps15 distal from(More)
Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (ARJP) is an early onset familial form of Parkinson's disease. Approximately 50% of all ARJP cases are attributed to mutations in the gene park2, coding for the protein parkin. Parkin is a multidomain E3 ubiquitin ligase with six distinct domains including an N-terminal ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain. In this work we(More)
The ubiquitin signaling pathway consists of hundreds of enzymes that are tightly regulated for the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for conjugating ubiquitin onto a substrate protein, which itself can be ubiquitinated. Ataxin-3 performs the opposing function as a deubiquitinating enzyme that can remove ubiquitin(More)