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We examined the interactions of calmodulin with neuronal gap junction proteins connexin35 (Cx35) from perch, its mouse homologue Cx36, and the related perch Cx34.7 using surface plasmon resonance. Calmodulin bound to the C-terminal domains of all three connexins with rapid kinetics in a concentration- and Ca2+-dependent manner. Dissociation was also very(More)
Connexin 35 (Cx35) is a major component of electrical synapses in the central nervous system. Many gap junctions containing Cx35 are regulated by dopamine receptor pathways that involve protein kinase A (PKA). To study the mechanism of PKA regulation, we analyzed direct phosphorylation of Cx35 by PKA in vitro and studied the regulation of neurobiotin tracer(More)
Connexin 35/36 is the most widespread neuronal gap junction protein in the retina and central nervous system. Electrical and/or tracer coupling in a number of neuronal circuits that express this connexin are regulated by light adaptation. In many cases, the regulation of coupling depends on signaling pathways that activate protein kinases such as PKA, and(More)
An antigenic peptide analogue consisting of HIV gp120 residues 421-431 (an antigen recognition site probe) with diphenyl amino(4-amidinophenyl)methanephosphonate located at the C-terminus (a catalytic site probe) was synthesized and its trypsin and antibody reactivity characteristics were studied. Antibodies to the peptide determinant recognized the(More)
Phosphonate monoesters have been assumed to serve as noncovalent transition state analogs for enzymes capable of catalyzing transacylation reactions. Here, we present evidence for the covalent reaction of certain serine proteinases and peptidase antibody fragments with monophenyl amino(4-amidinophenyl)methanephosphonate derivatives. Stable adducts of the(More)
Antibody (Ab) nucleophilic reactivity was studied using hapten and polypeptide antigens containing biotinylated phosphonate diester groups (covalently reactive antigen analogs, CRAs). Polyclonal IgG from healthy donors formed covalent adducts with a positively charged hapten CRA at levels superior to trypsin. Each of the 16 single chain Fv clones studied(More)
The human population is growing and, globally, we must meet the challenge of increased protein needs required to feed this population. Single cell proteins (SCP), when coupled to aquaculture production, offer a means to ensure future protein needs can be met without direct competition with food for people. To demonstrate a given type of SCP has potential as(More)
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