Automated currency validation requires a decision to be made regarding the authenticity of a banknote presented to the validation system. This decision often has to be made with little or no information regarding the characteristics of possible counterfeits as is the case for issues of new currency. A method for automated currency validation is presented… (More)
BACKGROUND Triple-negative (TN) tumours are the predominant breast cancer subtype in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Recently, it was proposed that all individuals below 50 years of age with TN breast cancer should be offered BRCA testing. We have evaluated the BRCA1 mutation frequency and the implications for clinical practice of undertaking genetic testing in… (More)
Involvement of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the decision of whether to electively treat patients with clinically negative necks remains a controversial topic. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) provides a minimally invasive method for determining the disease… (More)
The number of harvested lymph nodes when performing sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the maximum number of nodes to be harvested for histopathological analysis. We also wanted to determine if the level of radioactivity within a SLN or its size were indicators for the likelihood of nodal metastases.… (More)
Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness… (More)
BACKGROUND Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy (CRRM) are rising, despite a decreasing global incidence of contralateral breast cancer. Reasons for requesting this procedure are complex, and we have previously shown a variable practice amongst breast and plastic surgeons in England. We propose a protocol, based on a published systematic review,… (More)
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Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a common malignancy with a good prognosis in the majority of cases. However, some BCC patients develop a more advanced disease that poses significant management challenges. Such cases include locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic BCC, or tumours that occur in anatomical sites where surgical treatment would result in… (More)