The following is a selected bibliography on ground penetrating radar. It is excerpted from a more comprehensive bibliography (approximately four times larger) to be published next year in the second volume of the Society of Exploration Geophysicist's Electromagnetic Volumes, edited by Misac Nabighian. Radar was invented during World War II and first applied… (More)
Introduction: The ability of radar energy to penetrate into the subsurface is dependent on the electromagnetic (EM) properties of the subsurface. Mars is believed to be a good ground penetrating radar (GPR) environment due to the lack of liquid water and the assumed low conductivity of the subsurface. However, dielectric and magnetic relaxation losses of… (More)
This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Any use of trade names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.
The spectrum of electromagnetic energy used in exploration geophysics extends from the lowest frequency equivalent to the period of magnetic observatory recordings (about 150 years) up through microwaves into gamma rays. The lower frequency portion of this spectrum is shown in Figure 1. At this Ultra Wideband Conference, nearly all of the other… (More)