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Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified.(More)
Marine phytoplankton blooms are annual spring events that sustain active and diverse bloom-associated bacterial populations. Blooms vary considerably in terms of eukaryotic species composition and environmental conditions, but a limited number of heterotrophic bacterial lineages - primarily members of the Flavobacteriia, Alphaproteobacteria and(More)
We analyzed gene expression in marine and freshwater bacterioplankton communities by the direct retrieval and analysis of microbial transcripts. Environmental mRNA, obtained from total RNA by subtractive hybridization of rRNA, was reverse transcribed, amplified with random primers, and cloned. Approximately 400 clones were analyzed, of which approximately(More)
The eutrophication of waterways worldwide is an ongoing problem commonly tied to anthropogenic over-enrichment of growth limiting nutrients (Schindler and Vallentyne, 2008; Vollenweider and Kerekes, 1982). Concurrent with this process, increases in both the frequency and duration of toxic cyanobacter-ial blooms have been documented on a global scale(More)
Using marine sediment traps (named RESPIRE for REspiration of Sinking Particles In the subsuRface ocEan) designed to collect sinking particles and associated microbial communities in situ, we collected and incubated marine aggregates/particles in the southern Pacific Ocean from separate phytoplankton bloom events in situ. We determined the phylogenetic(More)
Aureococcus anophagefferens causes economically and ecologically destructive "brown tides" in the United States, China and South Africa. Here we report the 370,920bp genomic sequence of AaV, a virus capable of infecting and lysing A. anophagefferens. AaV is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) group, harboring 377 putative coding(More)
Plasmodium infections result in clinical presentations that range from asymptomatic to severe malaria, resulting in ∼1 million deaths annually. Despite this toll on humanity, the factors that determine disease severity remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the gut microbiota of mice influences the pathogenesis of malaria. Genetically similar mice(More)
BACKGROUND Epifluorescence microscopy is a common method used to enumerate virus-like particles (VLP) from environmental samples and relies on the use of filter membranes with pore sizes < 0.02 μm; the most commonly used protocols employ 25 mm Anodisc™ membranes with a built-in support ring. Other filters with small pore sizes exist, including the 13 mm(More)
Chitin is an abundant biopolymer whose degradation is mediated primarily by bacterial chitinases. We developed a degenerate PCR primer set to amplify a approximately 900-bp fragment of family 18, group I chitinase genes and used it to retrieve these gene fragments from environmental samples. Clone libraries of presumptive chitinase genes were created for(More)
Patterns of aerobic methane (CH4) oxidation and associated methanotroph community composition were investigated during the development of seasonal stratification in Mono Lake, California (USA). CH4 oxidation rates were measured using a tritiated CH4 radiotracer technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(More)