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Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified.(More)
The eutrophication of waterways worldwide is an ongoing problem commonly tied to anthropogenic over-enrichment of growth limiting nutrients (Schindler and Vallentyne, 2008; Vollenweider and Kerekes, 1982). Concurrent with this process, increases in both the frequency and duration of toxic cyanobacter-ial blooms have been documented on a global scale(More)
BACKGROUND Epifluorescence microscopy is a common method used to enumerate virus-like particles (VLP) from environmental samples and relies on the use of filter membranes with pore sizes < 0.02 μm; the most commonly used protocols employ 25 mm Anodisc™ membranes with a built-in support ring. Other filters with small pore sizes exist, including the 13 mm(More)
Chitin is an abundant biopolymer whose degradation is mediated primarily by bacterial chitinases. We developed a degenerate PCR primer set to amplify a approximately 900-bp fragment of family 18, group I chitinase genes and used it to retrieve these gene fragments from environmental samples. Clone libraries of presumptive chitinase genes were created for(More)
Viruses contribute to the mortality of marine microbes, consequentially altering biological species composition and system biogeochemistry. Although it is well established that host cells provide metabolic resources for virus replication, the extent to which infection reshapes host metabolism at a global level and the effect of this alteration on the(More)
C57BL/6 mice are widely used for in vivo studies of immune function and metabolism in mammals. In a previous study, it was observed that when C57BL/6 mice purchased from different vendors were infected with Plasmodium yoelii, a causative agent of murine malaria, they exhibited both differential immune responses and significantly different parasite burdens:(More)
Here we examined the impact of a commonly employed method used to measure nitrogen fixation, the acetylene reduction assay (ARA), on a marine sediment community. Historically, the ARA technique has been broadly employed for its ease of use, in spite of numerous known artifacts. To gauge the severity of these effects in a natural environment, we employed(More)
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